Primary vaginal adenocarcinomas are one of the rarest malignant neoplasms, which develop in the female genital tract. Because of the extremely low incidence, their clinical and pathologic characteristics are still obscure. Recently, we experienced a case of vaginal adenocarcinoma that appeared 7 yr after hysterectomy because of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The patient, a 65-yr-old obese woman, was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma in the vaginal stump and was treated by simple tumor excision and radiation. Immunohistochemical and molecular biologic examinations indicated a potential association with human papilloma virus infection in the development of the vaginal adenocarcinoma. There has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 yr after the operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following acute injury, the concerted action of resident and nonresident cell populations evokes wound healing responses that entail a temporary increase in inflammation, extracellular matrix production, and proliferation to ultimately restore normal organ architecture. However, chronic injury evokes a perpetuating wound healing response promoting the development of fibrosis, organ failure, and cancer. Recent evidence points toward toll-like receptors (TLRs) as important regulators of inflammatory signals in wound healing. Here, we will review the activation of TLRs by different endogenous and bacterial TLR ligands during wound healing, and the contribution of TLR-induced signals to injury, fibrogenesis, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. We will discuss the hypothesis that TLRs act as sensors of danger signals in injured tissue to switch the wound healing response toward fibrogenesis and regeneration as a protective response to imminent danger at the cost of an increased long-term risk of developing scars and cancer.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 02/2009; 87(2):125-38. DOI:10.1007/s00109-008-0426-z · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary vaginal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type is a rare malignant gynecologic disease. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with a diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A physical examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid lesion of the vagina. The patient underwent surgery for endometrial cancer and wedge resection of the vaginal lesion. The diagnosis of primary vaginal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type was obtained after standard and immunohistochemical analyses of the specimen. No endometrial cancer was detected in the specimen. Radiological investigations excluded metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract. Subsequently, the patient underwent concomitant chemoradiation. At present, 32 months later, she is well and disease-free. Extensive radiological investigations and careful immunohistochemical analysis of the specimen are needed for a correct diagnosis of vaginal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Concomitant chemoradiation, as a primary treatment, should be considered.
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 11/2007; 26(4):490-3. DOI:10.1097/pgp.0b013e318047ffe5 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case in which a vaginal adenocarcinoma was discovered in a 67-year-old woman 16 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Both the vaginal and cervical lesions exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical (CDX2-positive) features of intestinal differentiation. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping demonstrated the vaginal adenocarcinoma to contain human papillomavirus 45. We believe the vaginal adenocarcinoma to be related to the cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and to represent recurrence of this. This is an extremely rare phenomenon with, as far as we are aware, only one previous report in the literature.
International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 06/2009; 28(3):296-300. DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3181895592 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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