Over the last decade, gender and age-related hormonal status of trauma patients have been increasingly recognized as outcome factors. In the present study, we examine a large cohort of trauma patients to better appraise the effects of gender and age on patient outcome after blunt and penetrating trauma. We hypothesize that adult females are at lower risk for complications and mortality relative to adult males after both blunt and penetrating trauma. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the National Trauma Data Bank examining hormonally active females for advantages in survival and outcome after blunt and/or penetrating trauma. Over 1.4 million incident trauma cases were identified between 2002 and 2006. Multiple logistic regressions were calculated for associations between gender and outcome, stratified by injury type, age, comorbidity, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and complications. Risk factors associated with mortality in our multiple logistic regression analyses included: penetrating trauma (odds ratio [OR, 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.27 to 2.36); adult male (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.49); and ISS 15 or greater (OR, 14.68; 95% CI, 14.38 to 14.98). Adult females demonstrated a survival advantage over adult males (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.71). Adult females with ISS less than 15 demonstrated a distinct survival advantage compared with adult males after both blunt and penetrating trauma. These results warrant further investigation into the role of sex hormones in trauma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the prognostic value of gender on mortality in blunt and penetrating trauma in patients between 18 and 50 years old.
Methods: A literature search was performed on EMBASE, PubMed and The Cochrane Library. The articles were ranked according to relevance, validation and applicability. The outcome is defined as mortality and a possible relation between gender and blunt or penetrating trauma is presented in an odds ratio.
Results: In total 7220 articles were retrieved of which 4 articles were selected. In blunt trauma corrected odds ratios for male versus female are 2,5 for George et al. 20032, 1,1 for Petersen et al.3 and 2,5 for George et al. 20021. These odds ratios are all significant. In penetrating trauma the significant odds ratio of Petersen et al.3 is 1,3. George et al. 20032 and George et al. 20021 have non-significant odds ratios of respectively 0,9 and 1,8.
Conclusion: The male gender is a significant prognostic value on mortality in blunt trauma and penetrating trauma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of emergency medical interventions can be best evaluated using time-to-event statistical methods with time-varying covariates (TVC), but this approach is complicated by uncertainty about the actual times of death. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of hospital intervention on mortality after penetrating trauma using a method that allowed for interval censoring of the precise times of death.
Data on persons with penetrating trauma due to interpersonal assault were combined from the 2008 to 2010 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) and the 2004 to 2010 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Cox and Weibull proportional hazards models for survival time (t
SURV) were estimated, with TVC assumed to have constant effects for specified time intervals following hospital arrival. The Weibull model was repeated with t
SURV interval-censored to reflect uncertainty about the precise times of death, using an imputation method to accommodate interval censoring along with TVC.
All models showed that mortality was increased by older age, female sex, firearm mechanism, and injuries involving the head/neck or trunk. Uncensored models showed a paradoxical increase in mortality associated with the first hour in a hospital. The interval-censored model showed that mortality was markedly reduced after admission to a hospital, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63, 0.73) during the first 30 min declining to a HR of 0.01 after 120 min. Admission to a verified level I trauma center (compared to other hospitals in the NTDB) was associated with a further reduction in mortality, with a HR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.82, 0.97).
Time-to-event models with TVC and interval censoring can be used to estimate the effect of hospital care on early mortality after penetrating trauma or other acute medical conditions and could potentially be used for interhospital comparisons.
09/2014; 1(1):24. DOI:10.1186/s40621-014-0024-1
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