Impact and effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease in the elderly in England and Wales
ABSTRACT In 2003 the existing 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) programme for high risk groups was extended to include all ≥65 year olds in England and Wales, starting with ≥80 year olds and moving to 75–79 and 65–74 year olds by 2005. We conducted an ecological study to assess the impact of the extended PPV23 programme on serotype-specific incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and a case–control study to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) using the national IPD surveillance dataset. Between 1998 and 2006 IPD incidence caused by PPV23 serotypes in the targeted age-groups was unchanged. IPD caused by the serotypes covered by the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduced for children in 2006 declined in ≥65 year olds after 2006 but was offset by an increase in non-PCV7 serotypes. This increase was similar for the additional 16 serotypes covered by PPV23 and the non-PPV23 serotypes. For the VE study, vaccine history was obtained for controls (n = 1270) with non-PPV23 IPD diagnosed between November 2003 and December 2010 and a subset of cases (n = 1272) matched for age and time period. VE declined from 48% (95% confidence interval; 32–60%) within two years of vaccination to 15% (−3% to 30%) after five years. Although differences in VE by age and having risk conditions were not statistically significant the highest estimates were in the youngest age group (65–74 years) and in those without risk conditions with a VE estimate of 65% (23–84%) within 2 years of vaccination for non-risk 65–74 year olds. VE differed by serotype (p = 0.005), from −23% (−85% to 19%) for serotype 3 to 63% (29–81%) for 12F. In conclusion PPV23 was effective, particularly in healthy under 75 year olds, but protection waned after 5 years. There was no discernible impact of PPV23 on IPD incidence or PCV7-induced serotype replacement, consistent with the modest overall effectiveness, the 45% increased coverage over the former risk-based programme and lack of herd immunity from the PPV23 programme. Based on the VE estimates PPV23 was still considered a cost-effective intervention for the low risk elderly.
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ABSTRACT: Infections due to pneumococci especially in the elderly are vastly underestimated, e.g., because non-invasive infections such as pneumonia may appear with only few symptoms. Sequential vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13, followed by the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine, is considered as the best preventive measure for individual protection, even though clinical study data demonstrating the efficacy of this sequence are not yet available. Increase of "awareness" by use of computer-based reminder functions may result in a significant improvement of vaccination compliance.Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a serious problem in some risk groups: patients with stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease, stage 3 CKD undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, nephrotic syndrome or diabetes. These individuals are more susceptible to infections and more prone to suffering more severe and worsening symptoms. Vaccination is one of the strategies for preventing IPD, although vaccination coverage in this group at present is lower than desired. Currently, there are two vaccinations for adults. The polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), used for decades in patients over the age of 2, includes most serotypes (23), but it does not generate immune memory, causing the immune tolerance phenomenon and it does not act on nasopharyngeal colonisation. The conjugate vaccine (VNC13) can be used from infancy until adulthood (advice in patients over 18 years old received approval from the European Medicines Agency in July 2013) and generates a more powerful immune response than PPSV23 against the majority of the 13 serotypes that it includes. The 16 scientific societies most directly associated with the groups at risk of IPD have discussed and drafted a series of vaccination recommendations based on scientific evidence related to pneumococcal vaccination in adults with underlying conditions and pathologies, which are the subject of the document “Consensus: Pneumococcal vaccination in adults with underlying pathology”. This text sets out the vaccination recommendations for the chronic kidney disease population.Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 06/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD.SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia 08/2014;