Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Zinman College for Physical Education & Sports, Wingate Institute, Netanya 42902, Israel. .
Nutrients (Impact Factor: 3.27). 09/2013; 5(9):3646-83. DOI: 10.3390/nu5093646
Source: PubMed


Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

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Available from: Tali Sinai, Oct 19, 2014
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    • "In latest years, antioxidant supplementation was shown to be useful in the treatment of different diseases like atherosclerosis , autoimmunitary diseases, diabetes, and chronic diseases including muscular dystrophies [15] [16] [17] [18]. The beneficial effects of antioxidants were correlated with their ability to reduce oxidative stress, deactivate nuclear factor-í µí¼…B (NFí µí¼…B) pathway, and vascular effects like vasodilatation and antihypertension through NOS pathway [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common form of muscular dystrophy, is characterized by muscular wasting caused by dystrophin deficiency that ultimately ends in force reduction and premature death. In addition to primary genetic defect, several mechanisms contribute to DMD pathogenesis. Recently, antioxidant supplementation was shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple diseases including muscular dystrophy. Different mechanisms were hypothesized such as reduced hydroxyl radicals, nuclear factor-κB deactivation, and NO protection from inactivation. Following these promising evidences, we investigated the effect of the administration of a mix of dietary natural polyphenols (ProAbe) on dystrophic mdx mice in terms of muscular architecture and functionality. We observed a reduction of muscle fibrosis deposition and myofiber necrosis together with an amelioration of vascularization. More importantly, the recovery of the morphological features of dystrophic muscle leads to an improvement of the endurance of treated dystrophic mice. Our data confirmed that ProAbe-based diet may represent a strategy to coadjuvate the treatment of DMD.
    04/2015; 2015:1-17. DOI:10.1155/2015/680615
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary phytosterols have been successfully used for lowering cholesterol levels, which correlates with the fact that some phytosterols are able to act as liver X receptor (LXR) agonists. Sargassum fusiforme is an edible marine seaweed well known for its anti-atherosclerotic function in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, seven phytosterols including fucosterol (1), saringosterol (2), 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (3), 29-hydroperoxy-stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol (4), 24-methylene-cholesterol (5), 24-keto-cholesterol (6), and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (7) were purified and evaluated for their actions on LXR-mediated transcription using a reporter assay. Among these phytosterols, 2 was the most potent compound in stimulating the transcriptional activities of LXRα by 3.81 ± 0.15 -fold and LXRβ by 14.40 ± 1.10 -fold, respectively. Two epimers of 2, 24(S)-saringosterol (2a) and 24(R)-saringosterol (2b), were subsequently separated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Interestingly, 2a was more potent than 2b in LXRβ-mediated transactivation (3.50 ± 0.17 -fold vs. 1.63 ± 0.12 -fold) compared with control. Consistently, 2a induced higher expression level of LXR target genes including key players in reverse cholesterol transport in six cell lines. These data along with molecular modeling suggested that 2a act as a selective LXRβ agonist and is a potent natural cholesterol-lowering agent. This study also demonstrated that phytosterols in S. fusiforme contributed to the well known anti-atherosclerotic function.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2014; 62(26). DOI:10.1021/jf500083r · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with antipsychotics. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of polyphenol compounds derived from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in vitro. Methods. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) alone and with Aronox (5 ug/ml; 50 ug/ml). Results. We observed a statistically significant increase of TBARS level after incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) (after 24 h incubation: P = 7.0 × 10(-4), P = 1.6 × 10(-3), and P = 2.7 × 10(-3), resp.) and Aronox lipid peroxidation caused by ziprasidone was significantly reduced. After 24-hour incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml) in the presence of 50 ug/ml Aronox, the level of TBARS was significantly decreased: P = 6.5 × 10(-8), P = 7.0 × 10(-6), and P = 3.0 × 10(-5), respectively. Conclusion. Aronox causes a distinct reduction of lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone.
    06/2014; 2014(1-2):602390. DOI:10.1155/2014/602390
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