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Antifungal potential of extracts from four plants against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, two major pathogens of celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Cameroon

International Journal Current science 09/2013; 8(E):115-124.

ABSTRACT In order to contribute to a sustainable control of plant diseases through the use of natural compounds, the antifungal potential of 11 extracts from 4 Cameroonian plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Callistemon citrinus, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum) was evaluated in vitro against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively the causal agents of brown spots and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). Inhibition of fungi mycelial growth by essential oils, ethanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by using the supplemented media technique. Essential oils exhibited comparable activities against both fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration between 400 and 6000 ppm. Essential oil from O. gratissimum showed the highest inhibitory activity against both pathogens (400 ppm) followed by C. citratus (700 ppm and 800 ppm against A. apii and C. dematium, respectively), and then C. citrinus (6000 ppm). Ethanol extracts exhibited after the essential oils, the higher inhibitory activity against the two pathogens. Extract of C. citrinus was the most active with reductions of radial growth of 77.68% and 97.16% respectively against A. apii and C. dematium at 10000 ppm. Aqueous extracts at the same concentrations of ethanol extracts had little or no activity against both fungi. The fungitoxic potential of essential oils was higher than the one of the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Our results suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.

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