Antifungal potential of extracts from four plants against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, two major pathogens of celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Cameroon
ABSTRACT In order to contribute to a sustainable control of plant diseases through the use of natural compounds, the antifungal potential of 11 extracts from 4 Cameroonian plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Callistemon citrinus, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum) was evaluated in vitro against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively the causal agents of brown spots and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). Inhibition of fungi mycelial growth by essential oils, ethanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by using the supplemented media technique. Essential oils exhibited comparable activities against both fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration between 400 and 6000 ppm. Essential oil from O. gratissimum showed the highest inhibitory activity against both pathogens (400 ppm) followed by C. citratus (700 ppm and 800 ppm against A. apii and C. dematium, respectively), and then C. citrinus (6000 ppm). Ethanol extracts exhibited after the essential oils, the higher inhibitory activity against the two pathogens. Extract of C. citrinus was the most active with reductions of radial growth of 77.68% and 97.16% respectively against A. apii and C. dematium at 10000 ppm. Aqueous extracts at the same concentrations of ethanol extracts had little or no activity against both fungi. The fungitoxic potential of essential oils was higher than the one of the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Our results suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.
- SourceAvailable from: Galani Yamdeu Joseph Hubert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With the aim of contributing to natural control of plant pathogens, the antifungal activity of 11 extracts from 3 Cameroonian plants namely, Drypetes gossweileri, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Sida acuta was evaluated against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively causal agents of brown spot and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). The supplemented media technique was used to assess the inhibition of both fungi mycelial growth by essential oils, ethanol,hot water and cold water extracts. The essential oils exhibited the highest antifungal activity at 50 ppm with essential oil from D. gossweileri; and 6000 ppm and 7000 ppm, against C. dematium and A. apii, respectively, with essential oil from E. tereticornis. Ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed a moderate inhibitory activity with the best activity obtained from D. gossweileri ethanol extracts (90.31% and 67.53%, respectively, against A. apii and C. dematium at 10000 ppm). The fungitoxic potential of essential oils was comparative to the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Phytochemical screening of solvent extracts revealed a diverse composition in secondary metabolites and stronger inhibitory effects were recorded with extracts rich in alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones and saponines. These findings suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.International Journal of Current Research. 12/2013; 5(12):4091-4096.
INT J CURR SCI 2013, 8: E 115-124
Antifungal potential of extracts from four plants against Acremonium apii
and Colletotrichum dematium, two major pathogens
of celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Cameroon
Petchayo Tigang Sandrinea, Nguefack Juliennea, Galani Yamdeu Joseph Hubertb*, Fouelefack Francois Romaina,
Dakole Daboy Charlesa, Fotio Danielc and Amvam Zollo Paul Henrya
aDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, PO. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
bDepartment of Biochemistry, B.A. college of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388110, Gujarat, India
cInstitute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Box 2123, Yaoundé, Cameroon
*Corresponding author: email@example.com; Phone: +912692225750
In order to contribute to a sustainable control of plant diseases through the use of natural compounds, the antifungal
potential of 11 extracts from 4 Cameroonian plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Callistemon citrinus, Cymbopogon citratus and
Ocimum gratissimum) was evaluated in vitro against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively the causal
agents of brown spots and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). Inhibition of fungi mycelial growth by
essential oils, ethanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by using the supplemented media technique. Essential oils
exhibited comparable activities against both fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration between 400 and 6000 ppm.
Essential oil from O. gratissimum showed the highest inhibitory activity against both pathogens (400 ppm) followed by
C. citratus (700 ppm and 800 ppm against A. apii and C. dematium, respectively), and then C. citrinus (6000 ppm). Ethanol
extracts exhibited after the essential oils, the higher inhibitory activity against the two pathogens. Extract of C. citrinus was
the most active with reductions of radial growth of 77.68% and 97.16% respectively against A. apii and C. dematium at
10000 ppm. Aqueous extracts at the same concentrations of ethanol extracts had little or no activity against both fungi. The
fungitoxic potential of essential oils was higher than the one of the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Our results
suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.
Keywords: antifungal, plant extracts, celery, Acremonium apii, Colletotrichum dematium
Received: 20thJuly; Revised: 06thAugust; Accepted: 24thAugust; © IJCS New Liberty Group 2013
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a leafy vegetable
native to the Mediterranean region and was introduced in
Africa in the 19th century by the first Westerns (Marquis,
2005). It is classified 3rd among the most popular
vegetables for salads and is very popular in western
countries where its productivity can reach up to 20 t/ha
(Raid, 2004). In Europe, yields of 50 t/ha were achieved
(Schippers, 2004). In Cameroon, celery is grown as market
gardening crop and its culture represents a profitable
employment for many families. The leafy vegetables
account for 11% of the value of final agricultural
production of horticultural sector (Temple, 1999). Celery is
locally used as a condiment in seasoning, and also for
decoration of various dishes. Growing celery is faces many
limiting factors among which pests and diseases are
Petchayo et al., 2013
foremost. In Europe, the most damaging fungal disease is
Septoria leaf spots caused by Septoria apiicola. The
disease can cause more than 80% losses (Davis and Raid,
2002). An assessment of the phytosanitary status of celery
cultures at Nkolondom, Yaoundé, Cameroon has revealed
the predominance of two fungal strains, Acremonium apii
and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively responsible of
brown spots and anthracnose diseases, with incidences
ranging from 12 to 60%. The pathogens were largely
distributed in the area and were established to be
responsible for significant losses in fields as well as the
poor quality of marketable produce (Nguefack, 2006,
Synthetics fungicides are usually used by farmers
against these diseases, and have been proven effective.
However, the limitations of this practice are numerous,
including direct intoxication of users, environmental
pollution (Deward et al., 1993) and the emergence of
resistant strains. Moreover, analyzes of the local vegetables
showed the presence of pesticide residues in consumable
goods (Fotio and Monkiedje, 2005). Therefore, there is an
urge to look for new control methods which are
economically profitable, respectful to the environment and
safe for the consumer. Botanicals, compared to synthetic
pesticides have the advantage of low or no toxicity, easily
biodegradable, eco friendly, and can therefore be a natural
alternative control method against plant pathogenic fungi
(Awuah, 1994; Mason and Mathew, 1996; Nguefack et al.,
Several studies have reported the use of essential
oils and solvent extracts against plant pathogenic fungi.
Nguefack et al. (2012) demonstrated that at 1000 ppm,
essential oil fraction of O. gratissimum was more active
than C. citrinus fractions against Penicillium expansum.
Bengyella et al. (2011) showed that O. gratissimum
essential oil at 150 ppm inhibited by 86.17 and 100% the
mycelial growth of Bipolaris oryzae and Alternaria
padwickii respectively. The ethanol extract at 10000 ppm
showed 80.92 and 61.54% growth inhibition of B. oryzae
and A. padwickii respectively. Galani et al. (2013) reported
that essential oils of C. citratus at 300 ppm, O. gratissimum
at 400 ppm, and C. citrinus at 5000 ppm totally inhibited
the growth of Phythopthora infestans. Additionally, the
ethanol extracts of A. conyzoides and C. citrinus totally
inhibited the pathogen at 5000 ppm, and that of O.
gratissimum at 10000 ppm. However, there is no report of
the effect of these extracts on celery pathogens A. apii and
C. dematium. Therefore, in order to contribute to natural
control of celery brown spots and anthracnose diseases, in
this study 11 plant extracts from 4 Cameroonian plants
were tested against these two pathogens under laboratory
conditions to determine the effect of these extracts on their
mycelial growth and find out the most effective extracts.
Materials and Methods
A. apii and C. dematium were isolated from celery
(Apium graveolens L. cv. Grande) leaves showing brown
spots and anthracnose dark necrosis symptoms
respectively. The diseased material collected from field
was sterilized and incubated on Potato Dextrose Agar
(PDA) medium at 25ºC for 5 days. Cultures were purified
by single hyphal tip method on Prune Lactose Yeast Agar
(PLYA) and maintained at 25ºC. Cultures aged 7 days
were used for antifungal tests.
The 4 local plants used in this study (Ageratum
conyzoides, Callistemon citrinus, Cymbopogon citratus,
and Ocimum gratissimum) (Table 1) were selected based
Table 1. Characteristics of plants extracts
Plant species Family Organ used
EO colours Yield (%w/w)
EO: essential oil - ETE: ethanol extract - CWE: cold water extract
on the reported knowledge of their ethnobotanical uses and
their previously demonstrated antimicrobial activities.
Plant materials were collected at Yaoundé, Cameroon in
2009 and air-dried at room temperature (25-27°C) for 10 to
Extraction of essential oils
Essential oils were extracted from dry plant
material by hydrodistillation method using a Clevenger-
type apparatus. The collected oil was dried on a sodium
sulphate column and preserved at 4°C into airtight amber
bottles. The yields of oils were calculated as percent of
plant material weight (% w/w) and essential oils from
plants with higher yields (≥ 0.5% w/w) were used for
Preparation of solvent extracts
Shade-dried plant material of each species was
coarsely powdered in a blender and 100g of powder was
first defatted in 300 mL of hexane for 90 min. The lipid-
free powder was then extracted in 500 mL of distilled
water or 500 mL of 70% ethanol for 90 min, respectively.
After filtration, the filtrates were centrifuged at 7000 rpm
for 10 min. Ethanol was evaporated from the ethanol
extract using a rotary evaporator at 78°C. All supernatants
were freeze-dried in a lyophilisator and the obtained
powders of cold water extract and ethanol extract were
kept at 4°C into airtight amber bottles. The yields of the
solvent extracts were calculated as percent of dried plant
material weight (% w/w).
Banko Plus® fungicide titrating 550 g/L
chlorotalonil and 100 g/L carbendanzime, which is among
the most used synthetic fungicides by Cameroonian
farmers against celery fungal diseases was used in this
Antifungal activity test
The inhibitory effect of extracts and synthetic
fungicide on mycelial growth of each pathogen grown on
PLYA was evaluated using the supplemented media
technique as described by Benjilali et al. (1986). Essential
oils were added to media at concentrations ranging
between 100 and 6000 ppm, the solvent extracts were
tested at 1000, 5000 and 10000 ppm and the synthetic
fungicide from 1000 to 5000 ppm. Sterile double distilled
water was used as negative control. Petri dishes sealed with
parafilm were incubated in inverted position at 25±2°C for
12 h alternating light-dark cycle during 13 days for C.
dematium and 15 days for A. apii. The diameter of
pathogen mycelial growth was recorded and results
expressed as percentage of mycelial growth inhibition (%
I) calculated as per the formula of Pandey et al. (1982): % I
= (growth diameter in the control-growth diameter in the
treatment sample) x 100 / growth diameter in the control.
Petchayo et al., 2013
Determination of the nature of inhibition
Fungal discs from plates in which no colony growth
occurred after full incubation days were further checked to
detect the fungicidal or fungistatic nature of the inhibition
following the procedure of Mishra and Dubey (1994). The
discs were re-inoculated onto the fresh PLYA medium and
fungal growth was observed during 30 days of incubation.
The inhibition was qualified as fungistatic if renewed
mycelial growth was observed and the concentration was
recorded as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
If the contrary (no renewed mycelial growth) was
observed, the inhibition was qualified as fungicidal and the
concentration known as, minimum fungicidal
Experiments were set in a Completely Randomized
Design with three replications. Data were analysed using
Statistical Package for Social science (SPSS) version 10.1
software by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) paired to t-
test of Student-Newman-Keuls (parametric) and
differences among the means were determined for
significance at P<0.05.
Plant extracts characteristics
Characteristics of obtained essential oils and
solvent extracts vary from one plant species to another and
also depend on the solvent used as well as the extraction
method. The highest yields were obtained from cold water
extracts and the lowest from essential oils. The highest
essential oil yield (1.78%) was obtained from C. citrinus
and the lowest (0.10%) was recorded from A. conyzoides
and the later was not enough to perform subsequent
antifungal tests. Except essential oil of A. conyzoides
which looked green, oil colours of other plants were yellow
coloured (Table 1).
Efficacy of essential oils
All the 3 essential oils have shown significant
antifungal activity against both fungi and inhibition of
mycelial growth was dose- and plant species-dependant.
The essential oil of O. gratissimum was the most active,
with 100% inhibition at 400 ppm against both fungi. The
essential oil of C. citrinus was the less active, complete
inhibition of both pathogens’ growth was obtained at 6000
ppm. Both A. apii and C. dematium have shown similar
pattern of sensitivity to the 2 essential oils (Table 2).
Efficacy of ethanol extracts
All the ethanol extracts exerted antifungal activity
against both pathogens at all the 3 concentrations tested.
The extract of C. citrinus inhibited significantly (P<0.05)
the growth of both pathogens with the highest activity
(97.16%) recorded at 10000 ppm against C. dematium.
Except the extract of C. citratus at 1000 and 5000 ppm;
and O. gratissimum at 5000 ppm, all the extracts were in
general most active against C. dematium (Table 3).
Efficacy of cold water extracts
The mycelial growth of both pathogens was not
affected or was merely lightly inhibited by the majority of
cold water extracts whereas some growth stimulation was
observed with some extracts. The most active extract
(12.44% inhibition) was obtained from O. gratissimum at
10000ppm against C. dematium. At all the tested
concentrations, C. citratus extract stimulated the growth of
A. apii and similar observation was obtained with
A. conyzoides extract at 1000 ppm against C. dematium.
Efficacy of the synthetic fungicide
Synthetic fungicide Banko Plus® completely inhibited the
Table 2. Percentage of mycelial growth inhibition of A. apii and C. dematium obtained with essential oils
Essential oil (ppm)
Percentage inhibition (%)
Acremonium apii Colletotrichum dematium
O. gratissimum C. citratus C. citrinus O. gratissimum C. citratus C. citrinus
100 15.24b±5.25 2.86a±1.43 0.00a±0.00 7.11b±2.77 5.33b±0.00 0.00a±0.00
200 59.40c±3.45 9.52b±2.18 0.00a±0.00 24.00c±1.33 15.11b±3.35 0.00a±0.00
300 72.26c±2.37 14.29b±0.00 0.00a±0.00 72.41c±5.03 17.77b±2.03 0.00a±0.00
400 100 c±0. 00 16.19b±2.18 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 21.78b±2.77 0.00a±0.00
500 100c±0. 00 21.43b±1.43 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 26.66b±1.33 0.00a±0.00
600 100c±0. 00 37.14b±1.43 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 31.55b±2.03 0.00a±0.00
700 100b±0. 00 100b±0.00 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 56.44b±2.77 0.00a±0.00
800 100b±0. 00 100b±0.00 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 100c±0.00 0.00a±0.00
900 100b±0. 00 100b±0.00 0.00a±0.00 100c±0.00 100c±0.00 0.00a±0.00
1000 100b±0. 00 100b±0. 00 0.95a±0.82 100b±0.00 100b±0.00 6.64a±0.04
3000 100b±0. 00 100b±0. 00 15.23a±0.81 100b±0. 00 100b±0. 00 13.33a±2.30
5000 100b±0. 00 100b±0. 00 34.76a±1.64 100b±0. 00 100b±0. 00 55.33a±0.00
6000 100a±0. 00 100a±0. 00 100a±0. 00 100a±0. 00 100a±0. 00 100a±0. 00
Values in same row followed by different letters are significantly different (P <0.05). Data are means ± SD of three
Table 3. Percentage of mycelial growth inhibition of A. apii and C. dematium by ethanol extracts
Ethanol extract concentration (ppm)
Percentage inhibition (%)
36.96a ±1.05 58.59b ±0.23
67.38c ±0.71 77.68d ±0.16
37.73a ±0.07 46.58a ±0.15
45.40b ±0.13 63.50c ±0.23
1000 1000 10000
Values in same column followed by different letters are significantly different (P <0.05). Data are means ± SD of three
mycelial growth of A apii at 3000 ppm and C. dematium at
Nature of the inhibition
The MIC and MFC of C. citratus essential oil against the
two pathogens remained the same, whereas for the other
extracts and the fungicide, they were different (Table 4).
Antifungal activity of essential oils and solvent
extracts from 4 plants against A. apii and C. dematium has
been assessed in this study. Essential oils showed
the highest activity against both pathogens.
Essential oils extraction yields varied with plant species.
Petchayo et al., 2013
Table 4. Percentage of mycelial growth inhibition of A. apii and C. dematium by cold water extracts
Cold water extract concentration (ppm)
Percentage inhibition (%)
1.43b ± 1.43 6.66c ± 2.17
-1.00a ±1.31 1.73a ± 1.50
1000 1000 10000
0.00ab ± 0.00 2.16a ± 1.98
-2.73a± 2.50 -7.03a ± 1.01 -7.58a ± 1.95 0.00a± 0.00 2.67a ± 0.00 6.67b ± 0.00
0.00ab± 0.00 0.00b ± 0.00 0.00b ± 0.00 0.00a± 0.00 0.88a ± 0.76 1.77a ± 0.77
0.94b ± 0.81 0.94b ± 0.81 0.94b ± 0.81 0.88a± 0.76 5.78b± 1.54 12.44c ± 1.53
Values in same column followed by different letters are significantly different (P <0.05). Data are means ± SD of three
Table 4. Nature of inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils and synthetic fungicide
O. gratissimum C. citratus
Higher yields of 0.73%, 0.68% and 1.78% were obtained
from O. gratissimum, C. citratus and C. citrinus
respectively whereas A. conyzoides yield (0.10%) was the
lowest. Different yields were obtained by other authors
from same plants: Nguefack et al. (2005) obtained 0.57%
yield with C. citratus and Bengyella et al. (2011) have
obtained 1.46% oil yield from O. Gratissimum. The plant
materials used by these authors were harvested in different
locations, at different period. However, our results are
similar to the yields obtained by Galani et al. (2013) with
plant material harvested from same location. According to
Bruneton, (1999) essential oil extraction yield could be
influenced by intrinsic factors such as botanical species
and plant vegetative cycle; and extrinsic factors such as
climatic conditions, soil type, place and time of harvest.
Besides, yields obtained with solvent extracts were
higher than those of essential oils. The cold water extracts
showed the highest yield ranging from 4.30 to 6.72% and
the ethanol extracts yields varied from 3.50 to 4.47%.
These differences are due to the extraction method used,
solvent extraction, and the relative solubility of the
compounds in extraction solvents (Lapornik et al., 2005).
All three essential oils used in this study exhibited
antifungal activity against both pathogens. Essential oils
from O. gratissimum and C. citratus showed strong activity
while moderate activity was observed with C. citrinus. It
has been shown that the antimicrobial activity of an
essential oil is related to its chemical composition, mainly
its proportion in oxygenated terpenes (Hammer et al.,
2003; Nguefack et al., 2012). The highest efficacy
observed with O. gratissimum oil as compared to other
essential oils is due to its very high content of active
phenolic compounds such as thymol (Nguefack et al.,
Petchayo et al., 2013
2007). The activity exhibited by C. citratus could be due to
the action of its major components neral and geranial. The
antifungal activity of 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and α-terpineol
(94.90%) could be responsible for C. citrinus activity
(Jazet et al., 2009; Dongmo et al., 2010) and was
demonstrated by Laret and Barrandon (1998). Moreover,
antifungal activity of essential oil could probably not only
be due to the action of the major components, but also to
the combined action of other compounds, these compounds
may act synergistically (Nguefack et al., 2012)
It was noted a low activity of solvent extracts as
compared to essential oils. This result is consistent with
those obtained by previous authors. It was shown that
essential oils compared to aqueous and ethanol extracts
from same plants were more active against Alternaria
padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae (Bengyella et al., 2011) and
against Phythophthora infestans (Galani et al., 2013). The
presence of active compounds in the extracts is influenced
by the extraction method, the extraction solvent, the age of
the plant and harvest time (Qasem and Abu-Blan, 1996;
Lapornik et al., 2005). There was a significant difference in
the activity of ethanol extracts as compared to cold water
extracts against both pathogens; the ethanol extracts
showed higher antifungal activity. The stronger activity
was recorded with the extract of C. citrinus, with 97.16%
inhibition against C. dematium and 77.78% inhibition
against A. apii at 10000 ppm. According to Amvam et al.,
(1998) these differences can be explained by their different
chemical compositions. Galani et al. (2013) have
demonstrated that ethanol extracts with significant
antifungal activity mainly contain phenols, sterols,
flavonoids, condensed tannins, and to a lesser extent
coumarins and alkaloids. Phenolic compounds possess a
very high antimicrobial activity (Lapornik et al., 2005).
Also, high activity of coumarins such as phytoalexins
produced by plants in response to fungal attack has been
reported by many authors (Cowan, 1999; Lapornik et al.,
The stimulation of the growth of A. apii at all
concentrations with C. citrinus cold water extract and A.
conyzoides extract at 1000 ppm on C. dematium was
observed in this study. Other reports mentioned stimulation
of pathogens growth by plant extracts (Wang et al., 2001;
Bengyella et al., 2011; Galani et al., 2013). This can be
explained by their low content of phenolic compounds as
revealed by Galani et al. (2013). According Mohapotra
et al. (2000) small amounts of phenols (3-5 μg/ml) are
required for normal metabolism of fungi, whereas the
concentrations of 20 μg/ml or more become toxic.
Moreover, the presence of glycosides shown by the
analysis of the phytochemical composition of the extracts
(Galani et al., 2013) can also explain the stimulation of
growth of the pathogen. Glycosides can be considered as a
potential source of glucose, needed by many pathogens. In
fact, as the dose of the extract is increased, there is an
increase of mycelial growth likely due to the increase in
glycoside concentration in the medium.
The recovery of the mycelial growth of both
pathogens was observed with essential oils from C. citrinus
(MIC=6000 ppm; CMF=8000 ppm) and O. gratissimum
(MIC=400 ppm; CMF=700 ppm). This reflects the
fungistatic nature of inhibition from these two essential
oils. There was no growth recovery of explants from the
essential oil of C. citratus on both pathogens; this reflects
its fungicidal character. The effectiveness of
O. gratissimum and C. citratus essential oils on both
pathogens was greater than synthetic fungicide Banko
Plus® which was also more active on both pathogens than
Petchayo et al., 2013
the essential oil of C. citrinus. Additionally, Banko Plus®
was more effective on A. apii (MIC=3000 ppm) as
compared to C. dematium (MIC=5000 ppm). Moreover,
the fungal strain of C. dematium appeared to be more
sensitive to cold water and ethanol extracts as compared to
A. apii. This difference in sensitivity between the two
pathogens can be explained by the difference in
mechanism of action of extracts and/or the constitution of
the two pathogens. Hammer et al. (2003) stipulates that the
antimicrobial activity is strongly influenced by the
physical, morphological and chemical characteristics of the
components of the microbe. Therefore, more studies on the
chemical and structural characterization of these pathogens
are required for a better understanding of the effect of plant
extracts components on their metabolism.
In conclusion, among the 3 types of extracts used
in this study, essential oils exhibited the strongest
antifungal activity against A. apii and C. dematium,
followed by ethanol extracts which were more active than
cold water extracts. This is the first report of plant extracts
from Cameroon as prospective source of compounds
effective against these two serious pathogens of celery in
the country. The degree of fungal growth inhibition
recorded with essential oils was stronger than the synthetic
fungicide. These findings pave the way towards isolation
and characterization of antifungal compounds which can be
used in crop protection strategies against fungal diseases of
The authors are grateful to the Laboratory of
Phytopathology of Institute of Agricultural Research for
Development (IRAD)-Yaoundé, the Danish Seed Health
Centre for Developing Countries, and REPARAC Project
for their logistic and financial support.
Amvam ZPH, Biyiti L, Tchoumbougnang F, Menut C,
Lamaty G, Bouchet PH (1998). Aromatic plants of
tropical Central Africa. Part xxxii. Chemical
composition and antifungal activity of thirteen
essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon.
Flav Frag. J. 13 (2): 107–114.
Awuah R (1994). In vitro extracts from Ocimum
gratissimum against Phythophtora palmivora
causing black spot of cocoa. Ann App Biol 124.
Bengyella L, Nguefack J, Roy P (2011). Evaluation of
antifungal potential Ocimum gratissimum extracts
on two seedborne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in
Cameroon. Asian J Biol Sci 4 (3): 306-311.
Benjilali B, Tantawi EA, Alaoui IM, Ayadi A
(1986). Methods to study antiseptic properties of
essential oils through direct contact with agar
medium. Plant Med Phytother 20 (2): 155-167.
Bruneton J (1999). Pharmacognosie. Phytochimie des
Plantes médicinales. 3ième Ed. Editions Paris:
France, Technique et Documentation. 915.
Cowan M (1999). Plant products as antimicrobial agents.
Clin Microbiol Rev 12 (4): 564-582.
Davis M, Raid R (2002). Compendium of Umbelliferous
Crop Diseases. American Phytopathological
Society Press, Minnesota, USA. 75.
Deward S, Georgopoulos S, Hollomon D, Ishii H, Leroux
P, Ragsdale N, Schwinn F (1993). Chemical control
of plant diseases: problems and prospects. Ann Rev
Phytopath 31: 403-421.
Dongmo BN, Jazet PMD, Tatsadjieu LN, Kwazou NL,
Amvam ZPH, Menut C (2010). Antifungal
Activities of Essential Oils of some
Petchayo et al., 2013
Cameroonian Myrtaceae on Aspergillus flavus Link
ex. Fries. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 1(4): 907-914.
Fotio D, Monkiedje A (2005). Effets des pesticides sur les
cultures maraîchères et le sol en zone périurbaine
au Cameroun. Recueil des Posters, Réunion
Annuelle du CIRAD Flhor Montpellier-France 4-6
Galani YJH, Nguefack J, Dakole DC, Fotio D, Petchayo
TS, Fouelefack FR, Amvam ZPH
(2013). Antifungal potential and phytochemical
analysis of extracts from seven Cameroonian plants
against late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.
Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2(5): 140-154.
Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (2003). Antifungal
activity of the components of Melaleuca
alternifolia (tea tree) oil. J Appl Microbiol 95: 853-
Jazet PMD, Tatsadjieu LN, Ndongson BD, Kuate J,
Amvam ZPH, Menut C (2009). Correlation
between chemical composition and antifungal
properties of essential oils of Callistemon
rigidus and Callistemon citrinusof Cameroon
against Phaeoramularia angolensis. J Med Plant
Res 3 (1): 009-015.
Lapornik B, Prosěk M, Wondra AG (2005). Comparison of
extracts prepared from plant by-products using
different solvents and extraction time. J Food Eng
Laret, Barrandon J (1998): Flore de Montpellier J. calas
Marquis S (2005). Diagnostic agraire du village
Nkolondom dans la zone périurbaine de Yaoundé
(Cameroun). Mémoire présenté pour l’obtention du
diplôme d’ingénieur horticole d’INH-IRAD-
Mason J, Mathew D (1996). Evaluation of neem as a bird
repellent chemical. Int J Pest Managem. 42: 47-49.
Mishra AK, Dubey NK (1994). Evaluation of some
essential oils for their toxicity against fungi causing
deterioration of stored food commodities. Appl
Environ Microbiol 60 (4): 1401-1405.
Mohapotra NP, Patil SP, Ray RC (2000). In vitro inhibition
of Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) causing Java
black rot in sweet potato by phenolic compounds.
Ann Plant Prot Sci 8 (1): 106-109.
Nguefack J, Leth V, Dongmo JBL, Pedersen JGT, Zollo
PHA, Nyasse S (2008) 'Use of three essential oils
as seed treatments against seed-borne fungi of rice
(Oryza sativa L.)' American-Eurasian J Agricul and
Environ Sci 4 (5): 554-560.
Nguefack J, Nguikwie SK, Fotio D, Dongmo B, Leth V,
Nkengfack AE (2007). Fungicidal potential of
essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon
citrates, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris
Alternaria padwickii and Bipolaris
oryzae two seed-borne fungi of rice (Oryza
sativa L.). J Essent Oil Res 19: 581-587.
Nguefack J, Somda I, Mortensen C N, Amvam ZPH
(2005). Evaluation of five essential oils from
aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling seed-
borne bacteria of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Sci
Technol 33 (2): 397-407.
Nguefack J, Tamgue O, Dongmo JBL, Dakole CD, Leth V,
Vismerc HF, Amvam ZPH, Nkengfack AE (2012).
Synergistic action between fractions of essential
oils from Cymbopogon citrates, Ocimum
Petchayo et al., 2013
Penicillium expansum. Food Control 23: 377-383.
Pandey DK, Tripathi NN, Tripathi RD, Dixit SN (1982).
Fungitoxic and phytotoxic properties of the
essential oil of
Caesulia axillaris Roxb.
(Compositae). Angew Botanic 56:259-267.
Quasem JR, Abu-Blan HA (1996). Fungicidal activity of
some common weed extracts against plant
pathogenic fungi. J Phytopath 144 (3): 157-161.
Raid RN (2004). Celery diseases and their management:
Diseases of fruits and vegetables. Diagnosis and
Management. I: 441-453.
Schippers RR (2004). Légumes Africains Indigènes:
présentation des espèces cultivées. CTA
Wageningen Pays-Bas: Margraf Publishers GmbH
Scientific Books, Germany pp 482.
Temple L (1999). Le marché des fruits et légumes au
Cameroun. Quantification des flux-analyse des
prix. IRAD-CIRAD-FAC, pp 162.
Wang S, Wang X, Liu J, Cao K (2001). Screening of
Chinese herbs for fungitoxicity
against Phytophthora infestans. J Agricul Uni
Hebei. 24 (2): 9-15.