Antifungal potential of extracts from four plants against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, two major pathogens of celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Cameroon

International Journal Current science 09/2013; 8(E):115-124.

ABSTRACT In order to contribute to a sustainable control of plant diseases through the use of natural compounds, the antifungal potential of 11 extracts from 4 Cameroonian plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Callistemon citrinus, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum) was evaluated in vitro against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively the causal agents of brown spots and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). Inhibition of fungi mycelial growth by essential oils, ethanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by using the supplemented media technique. Essential oils exhibited comparable activities against both fungi with minimum inhibitory concentration between 400 and 6000 ppm. Essential oil from O. gratissimum showed the highest inhibitory activity against both pathogens (400 ppm) followed by C. citratus (700 ppm and 800 ppm against A. apii and C. dematium, respectively), and then C. citrinus (6000 ppm). Ethanol extracts exhibited after the essential oils, the higher inhibitory activity against the two pathogens. Extract of C. citrinus was the most active with reductions of radial growth of 77.68% and 97.16% respectively against A. apii and C. dematium at 10000 ppm. Aqueous extracts at the same concentrations of ethanol extracts had little or no activity against both fungi. The fungitoxic potential of essential oils was higher than the one of the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Our results suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.

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    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal effect of essential oil and solvent extracts of dried leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. in the quest for a possible bio-fungicide. Previous studies unveiled, rice farming regions of Cameroon were endemic to Bipolaris oryzae and Alternaria padwickii causal of brown-spot and stack-burn diseases respectively. A comparative in vitro study exploring the antifungal effect of Ocimum gratissimum L. dried leaves extracts and a local synthetic fungicide (Chlorothalonil 550 and 100 g L-1 Carbendazim referred to as Banko-plus) against these two phytopathogens using the supplemented medium technique was setup. Essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation stood at pars from ethanol extract, cold water extract, hot water extract and exhibited the best antifungal activity on Bipolaris oryzae and Alternaria padwickii at (150 ppm), marked by 86.17 and 100% growth inhibition, respectively. The synthetic fungicide strongly inhibited B. oryzae and A. padwickii at 10,000 ppm with 69.11 and 100% growth inhibition, respectively. Strong resistance was exhibited by B. oryzae against Banko-plus at lower concentrations, shedding light on the inefficiency of farmers to control brown-spot disease with this systemic fungicide in Cameroon. Ethanol and cold water exhibited some exploitable antifungal activity. Hot water extract showed no inhibitory activity at all tested concentrations, but paradoxically activated growth at all tested concentrations. This study paved the path for further field studies towards the exploitation of the antifungal potentials of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil, ethanol and cold water extracts for seed treatment in Cameroon rice fields.
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