The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages, pitfalls and the clinical applications of the principal methods for fat suppression in MRI.
Three methods can be used: Fat Saturation, Short TI Inversion Recovery and phase opposition. Each will be used in different clinical applications due to their different properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The world's forests influence climate through physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect planetary energetics,
the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric composition. These complex and nonlinear forest-atmosphere interactions can dampen or
amplify anthropogenic climate change. Tropical, temperate, and boreal reforestation and afforestation attenuate global warming
through carbon sequestration. Biogeophysical feedbacks can enhance or diminish this negative climate forcing. Tropical forests
mitigate warming through evaporative cooling, but the low albedo of boreal forests is a positive climate forcing. The evaporative
effect of temperate forests is unclear. The net climate forcing from these and other processes is not known. Forests are under
tremendous pressure from global change. Interdisciplinary science that integrates knowledge of the many interacting climate
services of forests with the impacts of global change is necessary to identify and understand as yet unexplored feedbacks
in the Earth system and the potential of forests to mitigate climate change.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arctic climate is projected to change dramatically in the next 100 years and increases in temperature will likely lead to changes in the distribution and makeup of the Arctic biosphere. A largely deciduous ecosystem has been suggested as a possible landscape for future Arctic vegetation and is seen in paleo-records of warm times in the past. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive terrestrial biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is up to 1.5 times larger than the forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea-ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Land surface albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration of water vapor and feedbacks from the ocean and sea-ice.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(4):1295-300. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0913846107 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New pollen and radiocarbon data from an 8.6-m coastal section, Cape Shpindler (69°43′N; 62°48′E), Yugorski Peninsula, document the latest Pleistocene and Holocene environmental history of this low Arctic region. Twelve AMS 14C dates indicate that the deposits accumulated since about 13,000 until 2000 radiocarbon years BP. A thermokarst lake formed ca. 13,000–12,800 years BP, when scarce arctic tundra vegetation dominated the area. By 12,500 years BP, a shallow lake existed at the site, and Arctic tundra with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Salix, Saxifraga, and Artemisia dominated nearby vegetation. Climate was colder than today. Betula nana became dominant during the Early Preboreal period about 9500 years BP, responding to a warm event, which was one of the warmest during the Holocene. Decline in B. nana and Salix after 9500 years BP reflects a brief event of Preboreal cooling. A subsequent increase in Betula and Alnus fruticosa pollen percentages reflects amelioration of environmental conditions at the end of Preboreal period (ca. 9300 years BP). A decline in arboreal taxa later, with a dramatic increase in herb taxa, reflects a short cold event at about 9200 years BP. The pollen data reflect a northward movement of tree birch, peaking at the middle Boreal period, around 8500 years BP. Open Betula forest existed on the Kara Sea coast of the Yugorski Peninsula during the Atlantic period (8000–4500 years BP), indicating that climate was significantly warmer than today. Deteriorating climate around the Atlantic–Subboreal boundary (ca. 4500 years BP) is recorded by a decline in Betula percentages. Sedimentation slowed at the site, and processes of denudation and/or soil formation started at the beginning of the Subatlantic period, when vegetation cover on Yugorski Peninsula shifted to near-modern assemblages.
Global and Planetary Change 11/2001; 31(1-4-31):255-264. DOI:10.1016/S0921-8181(01)00123-0 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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