Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors that secrete phosphaturic hormones, most notably fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The majority of tumors associated with this syndrome show stereotypical histological features and are now known as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs). We postulated that immunohistochemistry for somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) could be used to definitively identify PMTs or other tumors that cause TIO. Immunohistochemistry for FGF23 and SSTR2A was performed on 15 tumors from 14 patients with a definite diagnosis of TIO. All showed positive staining for both markers. While FGF23 staining was quite focal in some tumors, SSTR2A showed diffuse strong expression. In 40 control tumors not known to be associated with the clinical or biochemical features of TIO, FGF23 expression was found in 2 cases (one aneurysmal bone cyst and one osteosarcoma). SSTR2A expression was found in 9 control tumors (4 synovial sarcomas, 2 hemangiomas, 2 aneurysmal bone cysts and one osteosarcoma). Only one tumor (an aneurysmal bone cyst) showed positive staining for both FGF23 and SSTR2A. SSTR2A also commonly stained neoplastic and non-neoplastic endothelial cells. We conclude that neither FGF23 nor SSTR2A expression are specific for the diagnosis of PMT. However both stains are highly sensitive. Because of its diffuse strong expression and widespread availability, immunohistochemistry for SSTR2A is useful to confirm the diagnosis of PMT in an appropriate setting particularly if material is limited. Negative staining can serve as an excellent rule out test for this diagnosis.
"They concluded that a positive staining for both markers is highly sensitive to PMTs, but not specific. A negative staining can serve as an excellent rule-out test for this diagnosis . In our case, the immunohistochemical staining for SSTR2A, CD 68, and Periostin was positive (Figures 2(c)–2(e)); the staining for FGF-23 could not be established. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our case, a 45-year-old male patient had multiple fractures accompanied by hypophosphatemia. FGF-23 levels were significantly increased, and total body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor mass located at the distal tibia leading to the diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). After resection of the tumor, hypophosphatemia and the increased levels of FGF-23 normalized within a few days. Subsequent microscopic examination and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) showing a positive expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A), CD68, and Periostin. Electron microscopy demonstrated a poorly differentiated mesenchymal tumor with a multifocal giant cell component and evidence of neurosecretory-granules. However, the resected margins showed no tumor-free tissue, and therefore a subsequent postoperative radiotherapy was performed. The patient is still in complete remission after 34 months. Tumor resection of PMTMCTs is the therapy of choice. Subsequent radiotherapy in case of incompletely resected tumors can be an important option to avoid recurrence or metastasis even though this occurs rarely. The prognostic value of expression of Periostin has to be evaluated more precisely in a larger series of patients with TIO.
Case Reports in Endocrinology 08/2014; 2014:729387. DOI:10.1155/2014/729387
"Tumors in TIO are known to express somatostatin receptors (SSTR); in particular, SSTR2/2A has been found to be the predominant subtype in TIO causing tumors   . Thus, recent studies reported improved tumor localization in patients with TIO by using somatostatin receptor imaging methods such as 111 Indium-octreotide scintigraphy ( "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia and low calcitriol levels as well as clinical symptoms like diffuse bone and muscle pain, fatigue fractures or increased fracture risk. Conventional imaging methods, however, often fail to detect the small tumors. Lately, tumor localization clearly improved by somatostatin-receptor (SSTR) imaging, such as octreotide scintigraphy or octreotide SPECT/CT. However, recent studies revealed that still a large number of tumors remained undetected by octreotide imaging. Hence, studies focused on different SSTR imaging methods such as 68Ga DOTA-NOC, 68Ga DOTA-TOC and 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT with promising first results. Studies comparing different SSTR imaging methods for tumor localization in TIO are rare and thus little is known about diagnostic alternatives once a particular method failed to detect a tumor in patients with TIO.
Bone 04/2014; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.04.016 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome resulting in renal phosphate wasting and decreased bone mineralization. TIO is usually induced by small, slowly growing tumors of mesenchymal origin (phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variant [PMTMCT]). Nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, bone pain, and musculoskeletal weakness make the diagnosis elusive and often lead to a delay in treatment. The prognosis of TIO is excellent following complete resection of the neoplasm, which leads to the rapid and complete reversal of all symptoms. If the tumor cannot be detected, treatment relies on supplementation with phosphate and active vitamin D compounds. Subsequent radiotherapy in case of incompletely resected tumors or definitive radiotherapy in unresectable tumors is an important treatment option to avoid recurrence or metastasis even though this occurs rarely. Due to the risk of recurrence or late metastases, long-term monitoring is required even in TIO patients diagnosed with a benign tumor.
Current Rheumatology Reports 06/2015; 17(6):512. DOI:10.1007/s11926-015-0512-5 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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