Tackling metabolic syndrome by functional foods.

National institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, .
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (Impact Factor: 4.58). 09/2013; DOI: 10.1007/s11154-013-9270-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The metabolic syndrome is one of the most vibrant and widely prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which involve obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, enhanced oxidative stress; hypertension and increased pro-inflammatory state that ultimate contribute towards poor health. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Pakistan according to different definitions is reported to be from 18 % to 46 %. Fifty percent of Pakistani population is at high risk of metabolic syndrome as being hypertensive. In studying dyslipidemia in Pakistan, hypertriglyceridemia is found in 27-54 % of the population, whereas 68-81 % has low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Population likes to eat healthier diet without changing their fundamental dietary pattern. Nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of positive or optimal nutrition. Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functional foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide (SMCS), a sulphur containing amino acid isolated from onion (Allium cepa Linn) showed antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Oral administration of SMCS daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days to alloxan diabetic rats controlled significantly their blood glucose and lipids in serum and tissues and altered the activities of liver hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphatase and HMG CoA reductase towards normal. The above effects of SMCS were comparable to those of glibenclamide and insulin.
    Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 03/1995; 32(1):49-54. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of supplementing a low fat diet with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich (C18:3 n-3) oil with a linoleic acid-rich (C18:2 n-6) oil on platelet composition and function. Prospective study with random allocation to one of the two oils. Free-living study. Eleven healthy young males recruited from within the University. Subjects were allocated to consume 40 g of either flaxseed oil (n = 5) or sunflowerseed oil (n = 6) daily for 23 days. Fasting blood samples were collected at commencement and completion of supplementation for analysis of platelet fatty acids and platelet aggregation. The platelet eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) more than doubled in the group taking flaxseed oil (P < 0.05) but was unchanged in the sunflowerseed group. As a result the platelet EPA:arachidonic acid ratio, considered a marker for thromboxane production and platelet aggregation potential, increased in the flaxseed group (P < 0.05). The aggregation response induced by 0.75 and 2 micrograms of collagen was decreased in those taking flaxseed oil (P < 0.05). This study provides further evidence that consumption of alpha-linolenic acid-rich oils may offer protective effects against cardiovascular disease over linoleic acid-rich oils via their ability to decrease the tendency of platelets to aggregate.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/1995; 49(3):169-78. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary plant sterols, especially sitostanol, reduce serum cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Soluble sitostanol may be more effective than a less soluble preparation. We tested the tolerability and cholesterol-lowering effect of margarine containing sitostanol ester in a population with mild hypercholesterolemia. We conducted a one-year, randomized, double-blind study in 153 randomly selected subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-one consumed margarine without sitostanol ester (the control group), and 102 consumed margarine containing sitostanol ester (1.8 or 2.6 g of sitostanol per day). The margarine containing sitostanol ester was well tolerated. The mean one-year reduction in serum cholesterol was 10.2 percent in the sitostanol group, as compared with an increase of 0.1 percent in the control group. The difference in the change in serum cholesterol concentration between the two groups was -24 mg per deciliter (95 percent confidence interval, -17 to -32; P < 0.001). The respective reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were 14.1 percent in the sitostanol group and 1.1 percent in the control group. The difference in the change in LDL cholesterol concentration between the two groups was -21 mg per deciliter (95 percent confidence interval, -14 to -29; P < 0.001). Neither serum triglyceride nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were affected by sitostanol. Serum campesterol, a dietary plant sterol whose levels reflect cholesterol absorption, was decreased by 36 percent in the sitostanol group, and the reduction was directly correlated with the reduction in total cholesterol (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). Substituting sitostanol-ester margarine for part of the daily fat intake in subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia was effective in lowering serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/1995; 333(20):1308-12. · 54.42 Impact Factor