The role of rewards and demands in burnout among surgical nurses.
ABSTRACT Job rewards have both, an intrinsic and an extrinsic motivational potential, and lead to employees' development as well as help them to achieve work goals. Rewards can balance job demands and protect from burnout. Due to changes on the labour market, new studies are needed. The aim of our study was to examine the role of demands and individual rewards (and their absence) in burnout among surgical nurses.
The study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 with 263 nurses who worked in surgical wards and clinics in hospitals in Southern Poland. The hypotheses were tested by the use of measures of demands and rewards (Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire by Siegrist) and burnout syndrome (Maslach Burnout Inventory). A cross-sectional, correlational study design was applied.
Nurses experienced the largest deficiencies in salary and prestige. Exhaustion was explained by stronger demands and lack of respect (large effect). Depersonalization was explained by stronger demands, lack of respect and greater job security (medium effect). Reduced personal achievement was explained by more demands and greater job security (small effect).
Excessive demands and lack of esteem are key reasons for burnout among surgical nurses. Job security can increase burnout when too many resources are invested and career opportunities do not appear. These results may help to improve human resource management in the healthcare sector.
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ABSTRACT: A model that integrates and builds on the job demands-resources model and selfdetermination theory is proposed to better understand the role of work motivation in relation to job resources, occupational commitment and emotional exhaustion. Two forms of motivation were studied: autonomous motivation, in which employees act with volition,; and controlled motivation, in which they act under internal or external pressure. Data were collected at two time points nine months apart from a sample of 586 school principals in Quebec, Canada. SEM analysis results support the hypothesized model. Specifically, job resources had a positive effect on autonomous motivation but a negative effect on controlled motivation. In addition, taking into account the cross-lagged effects of job resources on commitment and exhaustion, autonomous motivation had a negative effect on exhaustion but a positive effect on commitment whereas controlled motivation had a positive effect on exhaustion. These results advance the understanding of why work motivation acts on employee functioning and how it can play an active role in both the motivational and energetic processes of the job demands-resources model. Practical implications and further theoretical implications are discussed.Work and Stress 08/2012; 26(3):213-229. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 01/1996; 1(1):27-41. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study of 156 Dutch general hospital nurses tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work stressors and stress reactions. The model proposes four central domains of the work situation, namely work content, working conditions, social and labour relations, and conditions of employment. In addition, the model proposes three important stress reactions, namely a diminished intrinsic work motivation, occupational burnout and an inclination to leave the job. More specifically, it was hypothesized that (i) intrinsic work motivation is primarily determined by work content variables, (ii) burnout is primarily determined by both work load and limited social support, and (iii) propensity to leave is primarily determined by conditions of employment. All these relationships were simultaneously tested using a structural equations modelling technique. The results of a series of LISREL analyses indicate that the postulated model fits well to the data. The present study used conceptually integrated measures that cover the area of work stress and stress reactions, and provides directions for interventions aimed at preventing or reducing specific negative outcomes of work-related stress in general hospitals.Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/1999; 29(6):1360-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor