Cav1.3 channel α1D protein is overexpressed and modulates androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancers.
ABSTRACT Widespread use of L-type calcium channel blockers for treating hypertension has led to multiple epidemiologic studies to assess the risk of prostate cancer incidence. These studies revealed a reverse correlation between the likelihood of prostate cancer risk and the use of L-type calcium channel blockers among men without family history but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of multiple L-type calcium channel genes in prostate cancers and determined their functional roles in androgen receptor (AR) transactivation and cell growth. By reanalyzing the ONCOMINE database, we found that L-type calcium channel CACNA1D gene expression levels in cancer tissues were significantly higher than noncancer tissues in 14 of 15 published complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray data sets, of which 9 data sets showed an increase of 2- to 17-folds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining experiments revealed that CACNA1D gene and its coding protein α1D were highly expressed in prostate cancers, especially in castration-resistant diseases, compared with benign prostate tissues. Consistent with the notion of CACNA1D as an ERG-regulated gene, CACNA1D gene expression levels were significantly higher in prostate cancers with TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion compared with the cases without this gene fusion. Blocking L-type channel's function or knocking down CACNA1D gene expression significantly suppressed androgen-stimulated Ca(2+) influx, AR transactivation, and cell growth in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CACNA1D gene overexpression is associated with prostate cancer progression and might play an important role in Ca(2+) influx, AR activation, and cell growth in prostate cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Cholesterol has been shown to promote cell proliferation/migration in many cells; however the mechanism(s) have not yet been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol increases Ca2 + entry via the TRPM7 channel, which promoted proliferation of prostate cells by inducing the activation of the AKT and/or the ERK pathway. Additionally, cholesterol mediated Ca2 + entry induced calpain activity that showed a decrease in E-cadherin expression, which together could lead to migration of prostate cancer cells. An overexpression of TRPM7 significantly facilitated cholesterol dependent Ca2 + entry, cell proliferation and tumor growth. Whereas, TRPM7 silencing or inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by statin showed a significant decrease in cholesterol-mediated activation of TRPM7, cell proliferation, and migration of prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these results, statin intake was inversely correlated with prostate cancer patients and increase in TRPM7 expression was observed in samples obtained from prostate cancer patients. Altogether, we provide evidence that cholesterol-mediated activation of TRPM7 is important for prostate cancer and have identified that TRPM7 could be essential for initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 01/2014; 1843(9):1839–1850. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have investigated differential gene expression in gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cancers by microarray. The aim of the present study was to use data from the Oncomine database to identify genes that share a similar differential expression in two or more primary GI cancer sites.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Combination of androgen ablation along with early detection and surgery has made prostate cancer highly treatable at the initial stage. However, this cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among American men due to castration-resistant progression, suggesting that novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this life-threatening condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110β is a major cellular signaling molecule and has been identified as a critical factor in prostate cancer progression. In a recent report, we established a nanomicelle-based strategy to deliver p110β-specific inhibitor TGX221 to prostate cancer cells by conjugating the surface of nanomicelles with a RNA aptamer against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) present in all clinical prostate cancers. In this study, we tested this nanomicellar TGX221 for its in vivo anti-tumor effect in mouse xenograft models.METHODS Prostate cancer cell lines LAPC-4, LNCaP, C4–2 and 22RV1 were used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in immunohistochemistry assays to detect AKT phosphorylation, cell proliferation marker Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), as well as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Quantitative PCR assay was conducted to determine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene expression in xenograft tumors.RESULTSAlthough systemic delivery of unconjugated TGX221 significantly reduced xenograft tumor growth in nude mice compared to solvent control, the nanomicellar TGX221 conjugates completely blocked tumor growth of xenografts derived from multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Further analyses revealed that AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation indexes were dramatically reduced in xenograft tumors received nanomicellar TGX221 compared to xenograft tumors received unconjugated TGX221 treatment. There was no noticeable side effect by gross observation or at microscopic level of organ tissue section.CONCLUSION These data strongly suggest that prostate cancer cell-targeted nanomicellar TGX221 is an effective anti-cancer agent for prostate cancer. Prostate © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/pros.22941 · 3.57 Impact Factor