Zebularine induces chemosensitization to methotrexate and efficiently decreases AhR gene methylation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells
ABSTRACT Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in childhood. Despite the advances in treatment, about 20% of patients relapse and/or die, indicating the need for different therapies for this group. Zebularine (ZB) is a potent DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor and has been associated with gene demethylation and enhancement of tumor chemosensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ZB, alone or combined with chemotherapeutics (methotrexate and vincristine), on childhood ALL cell lines. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and clonogenic capacity were studied in Jurkat and ReH cell lines. Bisulfite modification, followed by methylation-specific PCR was carried out to evaluate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) methylation status. Gene expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and AhR was assessed using qRT-PCR. Both cell cultures were sensitive to ZB, showing a dose-dependent and time-dependent response (P<0.05). ZB induced apoptosis and decreased clonogenic capacity in both cell lines. Combination with methotrexate resulted in a strong synergistic effect, whereas combination with vincristine led to an antagonistic response in both cell lines. ZB treatment decreased gene expression of the three DNMTs and induced AhR gene promoter demethylation and its re-expression. These results indicate that ZB may be a promising drug for the adjuvant treatment of ALL, mainly when combined with methotrexate.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Angel Mauricio Castro-Gamero, Aug 13, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because early detection is difficult and recurrent ovarian cancer is usually drug-resistant. The morbidity and mortality of ovarian cancer are high worldwide and new methods of diagnosis and therapy are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Thus, miRNAs are likely to be useful as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and for cancer therapy. Many miRNAs have altered expression in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovarian tissues and these changes may be useful for diagnosis and treatment. For example, deficiencies of enzymes including Dicer and Drosha that are required for miRNA biogenesis may be adverse prognostic factors; miRNAs such as miR-214 and miR-31, which are involved in drug resistance, and the miR-200 family, which is implicated in metastasis, may serve as biomarkers; and transfection of downregulated miRNAs and inhibition of upregulated miRNAs may be effective for treatment of ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy targeting epigenetic mechanisms associated with miRNAs may also be effective to reverse gene silencing.04/2014; 2014:232817. DOI:10.1155/2014/232817
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ABSTRACT: It is hypothesised that Wilms tumour (WT) results from aberrant renal development due to its embryonic morphology, associated undifferentiated precursor lesions (termed nephrogenic rests) and embryonic kidney-like chromatin and gene expression profiles. From the study of overgrowth syndrome-associated WT, germline dysregulation was identified in the imprinted region at 11p15 affecting imprinted genes IGF2 and H19. This is also detected in ~70% sporadic cases, making this the most common somatic molecular aberration in WT. This review summarises the critical discussion at an international workshop held under the auspices of The European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) consortium, where the potential for drug development to target IGF2 and the WT epigenome was debated. Here, we consider current cancer treatments which include targeting the IGF pathway and the use of methylation agents alone or in combination with other drugs in clinical trials of paediatric cancers. Finally, we discuss the possibility of the use of these drugs to treat patients with WT.Oncotarget 09/2014; 5(18). · 6.63 Impact Factor