Sleep Patterns, Diet Quality and Energy Balance.
ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence showing that sleep has an influence on eating behaviors. Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and later bedtimes are all associated with increased food intake, poor diet quality, and excess body weight. Insufficient sleep seems to facilitate the ingestion of calories when exposed to the modern obesogenic environment of readily accessible food. Lack of sleep has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals consumed per day, and the preference for energy-rich foods. Proposed mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may increase caloric consumption include: (1) more time and opportunities for eating, (2) psychological distress, (3) greater sensitivity to food reward, (4) disinhibited eating, (5) more energy needed to sustain extended wakefulness, and (6) changes in appetite hormones. Globally, excess energy intake associated with not getting adequate sleep seems to be preferentially driven by hedonic rather than homeostatic factors. Moreover, the consumption of certain types of foods which impact the availability of tryptophan as well as the synthesis of serotonin and melatonin may aid in promoting sleep. In summary, multiple connections exist between sleep patterns, eating behavior and energy balance. Sleep should not be overlooked in obesity research and should be included as part of the lifestyle package that traditionally has focused on diet and physical activity.
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ABSTRACT: Rates of obesity and sleep disturbances are substantial in adults. A number of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found that insufficient sleep and possibly longer sleep are associated with obesity and related eating patterns. Methodological discrepancies and limitations in the literature create ambiguity about the nature and potential mechanisms underlying these relationships. Insomnia and circadian patterns in eating and sleeping have also been examined in relation to weight. Although these studies are not as extensive as those examining sleep duration, the extant literature suggests possible associations between obesity and both insomnia (particularly when combined with short sleep duration) and circadian eating behaviours. However, research has only just begun to examine the benefits of combining sleep interventions with obesity treatment. The goal of the current review is to summarize research examining behavioural sleep patterns and disorders in relation to obesity, to discuss methodological considerations, and to provide an overview of studies examining whether addressing sleep disturbances can augment weight loss treatment effects. We conclude that future studies are needed that take into account sleep duration, sleep disorder co-morbidity, and chronobiology to explore the impact of sleep interventions on weight loss.International Review of Psychiatry 06/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.3109/09540261.2014.911150 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the extent to which insufficient sleep is associated with diet quality in students taking part in the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Data were collected in Fall 2012 for all 4(th) and 7(th) grade children enrolled in public schools in two Massachusetts communities. During annual BMI screening, students completed a survey that assessed diet, physical activity, screen time, and sleep. Of the 2456 enrolled students, 1870 (76%) had complete survey data. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between sleep duration and dietary outcomes (vegetables, fruit, 100% juice, juice drinks, soda, sugar-sweetened beverages and water), accounting for clustering by school. Models were adjusted for community, grade, race/ethnicity, gender, television in the bedroom, screen time, and physical activity. In adjusted models, students who reported sleeping <10hours/day consumed soda more frequently (β=0.11, 95% CI:0.03, 0.20) and vegetables less frequently (β=-0.09, 95% CI:-0.18, -0.01) compared with students who reported ≥10hours/day. No significant associations were observed between sleep duration and fruit, 100% juice, juice drinks or water. In this population, insufficient sleep duration was associated with more frequent soda and less frequent vegetable consumption. Longitudinal research is needed to further examine these relationships. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Preventive Medicine 02/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.007 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (∼145%; P < 0.001) during the AVG condition than during the resting control and seated video game conditions; however, no significant differences in energy expenditure were observed 24 h (∼6%; P > 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (∼3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (∼2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (∼5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (∼9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in male adolescents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01655901. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2015; 101(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.105528 · 6.92 Impact Factor