Subtrochanteric fracture non-unions with implant failure managed with the “Diamond” concept

Injury (Impact Factor: 2.46). 01/2013; 44:S76–S81. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-1383(13)70017-2

ABSTRACT Background
Subtrochanteric femoral non-unions in the setting of failed metalwork pose a challenging clinical problem. This study assessed the clinical outcome of patients treated according to the principles of the “Diamond” concept.Methods
Between 2007 and 2011 all patients presented with a subtrochanteric atrophic aseptic non-union in the setting of metalwork failure (broken cephalomedullary reconstruction nail), and treated in a single tertiary referral unit were included to this study. The hypertrophic and the non-unions of pathologic fractures were excluded. The revision strategy was based on the “Diamond concept”; optimisation of the mechanical and the biological environment (implantation of growth factor (rhBMP-7), scaffold (RIA bone graft from contralateral femur) and concentrated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from the iliac crest). The minimum follow up was 26 months (16–48).ResultsFourteen patients met the inclusion criteria. A specific sequence of metalwork failure was noted with initial breakage of the distal locking screws followed by nail breakage at the lag screw level. The intraoperative examination of the removed nails revealed no gross structural damage indicative of inappropriate drilling at the time of the initial intramedullary nailing. Varus mal-alignment was present in the majority of the cases, with an average of 5.2 degrees (0–11). The average time to distal locking screw failure was 4.4 months (2–8.5) and nail failure was 6.5 months (4–10). The time to union after the revision surgery was 6.8 months (5–12). Complications included two deaths in elderly patients (due to unrelated causes), one pulmonary embolism, one myocardial infarction, one below the knee deep vein thrombosis and one blade plate failure that required further revision with double plating and grafting.Conclusion
Varus mal-alignment must be avoided in the initial stabilisation of subtrochanteric fractures. Distal locking screw failure is predictive of future fracture non-union and nail breakage. In the absence of sepsis, a single stage procedure based on the “Diamond concept” that simultaneously optimizes the mechanical and biological environment is a successful method for managing complex subtrochanteric atrophic non-unions with failed metalwork.

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    • "The vascularised and synovial regions contain stem cells, which contribute to meniscal regeneration [5]. Application of growth factors is an active area of research for tissue and bone regeneration [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study analysed the influence of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on cells and meniscal structure. The effect of treatment with BMP-7 was assessed in vitro and in vivo in lesions in the avascular area of the meniscus. Cells were extracted from the outer and inner part of eight menisci of four 2-year-old merino sheep. The menisci were digested with a collagenase mix, and meniscus cells of the synovium, vascular area and avascular area were extracted. The expression of genes for collagen (Col1 and Col2A), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-13) and aggrecan was analysed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at baseline and after incubation with BMP-7. Eight sheep aged 2 years and weighing 35–40 kg were used for the in vivo study. Surgery was performed in both knees of every animal. Two holes were made in the avascular area of the medial meniscus of both knees and filled using Putty® (control groups) or OP-1 Putty®, which comprises BMP-7 mixed with a cellulose putty carrier (experimental groups). Animals were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 25 weeks.
    Injury 10/2014; 45 Suppl 4:S15-21. DOI:10.1016/S0020-1383(14)70005-1 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence indicates that fracture healing assessment is limited to the use of one or two domains (such as pain, range of motion or mobility) in any single study. Functional outcome measures, which include physician-rated or observer-based impairment ratings and patient self-reported or observer-based activity limitation measures, better position the effectiveness of a given intervention towards patient-important outcomes. Health status measures, for example, cover a wide-range of physical, emotional, and social health dimensions. In this paper, we will examine the utility of metrics to assess fracture healing that are important to both the patient and provider, with selected examples from the recent literature. We recommend outcome measures with established and verified reliability and validity. Policy-makers and other stakeholders need to have an accurate assessment of treatment outcome that includes changes in function over time–adequate measures, should be re-applied at periodic intervals.
    Injury 06/2014; 45:S44–S48. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.04.008 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Hip fractures, a common manifestation of fragility fractures, represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and may have devastating consequences to the patient, their family, and society thereafter. We attempted to define the epidemiology of pertrochanteric fractures treated at a large university teaching hospital in the UK and compared our findings with the national and international literature. Methods Between April 2008 and March 2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study at our institution. All adult patients sustaining a proximal femoral fracture were included in our study. The following parameters were collected and evaluated: (1) demographics, (2) fracture pattern, (3) American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, (4) type of pre-injury mobilization, and (5) method of stabilization. Our findings were then compared to the national data as published in the National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD). Results Over a period of 5 years, 3,036 proximal femoral fractures were managed at our institution, with 916 (30.2 %) being classified as pertrochanteric fractures (250 male; mean age 82.0, SD 11.2). No significant change in the incidence of pertrochanteric fractures was evident during the same period. Between 2012 and 2013, 51,705 proximal femoral fractures were recorded in England, of which 19,569 (37.8 %) were classified as pertrochanteric fractures. Comparison between pertrochanteric and intracapsular fractures with respect to their demographics did not reveal any significant difference. In female patients, the relative incidence of pertrochanteric fractures was shown to increase with age. However, this was not the case in the male population. Conclusions The incidence of pertrochanteric fractures remained unchanged over the last 5 years. The relative incidence of pertrochanteric fractures is higher in elderly females; this may be explained by reduced bone mineral density and reduced trochanteric bone strength. Rigorous preventive treatments of osteoporosis should be considered in high-risk patients, along with improved safety measures to reduce falls.
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 06/2014; 40(3):225-232. DOI:10.1007/s00068-014-0375-x · 0.38 Impact Factor
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