Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Current views upon safety and immunogenicity

Departments of Internal Medicine, Clinical Immunology Unit, University of Genova, Genova, Italy. Electronic address: .
Autoimmunity reviews (Impact Factor: 7.93). 09/2013; 13(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2013.07.007
Source: PubMed


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory multisystem disease. The onset of viral and bacterial infections may favor the exacerbation of the disease, amplify autoimmune processes and contribute to mortality and morbidity. The prevention of influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections with vaccination should receive particular attention in SLE patients considering their elevated incidence, their high attack rate in epidemic periods, their potentially severe complications as well as the immunocompromised state of the host. The use of non-adjuvanted vaccine preparations should be preferred in order to avoid the onset of the "Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants" or "ASIA". In this review, we report that influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in SLE patients are: 1) recommended to reduce the risk of development of these infections; 2) strongly suggested in elderly subjects and in those receiving high dose immunosuppressive treatments; 3) efficacious, even if specific immune responses may be lower than in the general population, as generally the humoral response fulfills the criteria for vaccine immunogenicity; 4) safe in inactive disease although may favour a transient increase in autoantibody levels and rarely disease flares.

39 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: TNF-α inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in large, randomized controlled clinical trials either as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-inflammatory or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the treatment of chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. Etanercept is a fusion protein that acts as a 'decoy receptor' for TNF-α. Areas covered: This paper evaluates the efficacy and safety of etanercept in patients with chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. Expert opinion: Etanercept was first approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and subsequently of chronic plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and juvenile RA. Etanercept as other TNF-α inhibitors, particularly infliximab, may be administered off-label to treat other chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases such as systemic sclerosis, Behcet disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and mixed connective tissue disease. Early etanercept treatment prevents joint damage and helps to avoid long-term disability in arthritis. Etanercept administered at a dose of 50 mg once weekly is effective in inducing an earlier remission of RA, and etanercept 50 mg twice weekly may favor a more rapid improvement of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Etanercept and adalimumab may exert beneficial effects on lipid profile and improve endothelial dysfunction. Appropriate screening tests for latent tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus should be performed before starting etanercept. TNF-α inhibitors including etanercept are contraindicated in patients with demyelinating diseases.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 03/2014; 13(5). DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.899579 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) remains the primary goal of a preventive HIV-1 vaccine but no HIV-1 vaccine candidate has succeeded in inducing bnAbs. All the bnAbs isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected subjects display one or more traits associated with control by host tolerance and immunoregulatory mechanisms, including reactivity against self antigens. Recent studies on a HIV-1 patient with concurrent systemic lupus erythematosus have informed on how similar bnAbs are to typical autoantibodies controlled by immune tolerance mechanisms. Future studies aimed at elucidating the intersection between autoantibodies generated in the context of systemic lupus erythematosus and the development of HIV-1 bnAbs will further our knowledge of specific roadblocks that hamper the production of bnAbs and, ultimately, inform us on how to implement vaccine strategies to circumvent them.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1586/14760584.2014.938056 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an immune-complex-mediated multi-systemic autoimmune condition of multifactorial etiology, which mainly affects young women. It is currently believed that the onset of SLE and lupus flares are triggered by various environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Various environmental agents and toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, occupationally- and non-occupationally-related chemicals, ultraviolet light, infections, sex hormones and certain medications and vaccines, have been implicated to induce SLE onset or flares in a number case series, case-control and population-based cohort studies and very few randomized controlled trials. Here, we will describe some of these recognized environmental lupus triggering and perpetuating factors and explain how these factors potentially bias the immune system towards autoimmunity through their interactions with genetic and epigenetic alterations. Further in-depth exploration of how potentially important environmental factors mechanistically interact with the immune system and the genome, which trigger the onset of SLE and lupus flares, will certainly be one of the plausible steps to prevent the onset and to decelerate the progress of the disease.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 09/2014; 15(9):16043-16056. DOI:10.3390/ijms150916043 · 2.86 Impact Factor
Show more