The Economic Impact of Childhood Food Allergy in the United States.
ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Describing the economic impact of childhood food allergy in the United States is important to guide public health policies. OBJECTIVE To determine the economic impact of childhood food allergy in the United States and caregivers' willingness to pay for food allergy treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 28, 2011, through January 26, 2012. A representative sample of 1643 US caregivers of a child with a current food allergy were recruited for participation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Caregivers of children with food allergies were asked to quantify the direct medical, out-of-pocket, lost labor productivity, and related opportunity costs. As an alternative valuation approach, caregivers were asked their willingness to pay for an effective food allergy treatment. RESULTS The overall economic cost of food allergy was estimated at $24.8 (95% CI, $20.6-$29.4) billion annually ($4184 per year per child). Direct medical costs were $4.3 (95% CI, $2.8-$6.3) billion annually, including clinician visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Costs borne by the family totaled $20.5 billion annually, including lost labor productivity, out-of-pocket, and opportunity costs. Lost labor productivity costs totaled $0.77 (95% CI, $0.53-$1.0) billion annually, accounting for caregiver time off work for medical visits. Out-of-pocket costs were $5.5 (95% CI, $4.7-$6.4) billion annually, with 31% stemming from the cost of special foods. Opportunity costs totaled $14.2 (95% CI, $10.5-$18.4) billion annually, relating to a caregiver needing to leave or change jobs. Caregivers reported a willingness to pay of $20.8 billion annually ($3504 per year per child) for food allergy treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Childhood food allergy results in significant direct medical costs for the US health care system and even larger costs for families with a food-allergic child.
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ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) defined a formula as hypoallergenic if it ensures with 95% confidence that 90% of infants with confirmed cow's milk allergy (CMA) will not react with defined symptoms under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. This study's objective was to determine whether a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) meets the AAP hypoallergenicity criteria. Methods. Children with CMA were randomized to double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with a new AAF and a commercial AAF in crossover fashion followed by an at-home open challenge with the new AAF. Allergic reactions were assessed using a scoring system. Results. Thirty-three subjects completed DBPCFCs with both formulas without acute allergic reactions. The lower bound 95% confidence interval for hypoallergenicity was 91.3%. No unusual stool patterns, allergic symptoms, or signs of intolerance were reported during the open challenge.Clinical Pediatrics 11/2014; 54(3). · 1.26 Impact Factor
Article: Food Allergy Quality of Life.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 11/2014; 113(5):506-512. · 2.75 Impact Factor
- Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2014; · 11.25 Impact Factor