Mineral malnutrition following bariatric surgery.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Advances in Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.2). 09/2013; 4(5):506-17. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.004341
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Managing the metabolic needs of the patient with obesity is a challenge unto itself without the added demands of accounting for an altered gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, with about 200,000 bariatric procedures being performed annually in the United States, clinicians must be prepared to manage the critically ill bariatric surgery patient. This article reviews the recent literature relating to nutrient needs and metabolic support for the bariatric patient. Bariatric patients are at risk for several micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamins D and B12, calcium, and iron; some bariatric procedures affect macronutrient needs as well. Literature on nutrition support guidelines for the bariatric population is limited. However, with an understanding of the anatomical and physiological effects of bariatric surgery, recent guidelines for critically ill patients with obesity can be applied to the bariatric surgery population. The unique needs of the bariatric population, such as susceptibility to micronutrient deficiencies and specialized access routes, must be considered to provide safe and efficacious nutrition support. Further research is necessary to develop specific nutrition support recommendations for the bariatric population.
    Nutrition in Clinical Practice 10/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes recent evidence related to the safety, efficacy, and metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery to guide clinical decision making. Several short term randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of bariatric procedures for inducing weight loss and initial remission of type 2 diabetes. Observational studies have linked bariatric procedures with long term improvements in body weight, type 2 diabetes, survival, cardiovascular events, incident cancer, and quality of life. Perioperative mortality for the average patient is low but varies greatly across subgroups. The incidence of major complications after surgery also varies widely, and emerging data show that some procedures are associated with a greater risk of substance misuse disorders, suicide, and nutritional deficiencies. More research is needed to enable long term outcomes to be compared across various procedures and subpopulations, and to identify those most likely to benefit from surgical intervention. Given uncertainties about the balance between the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery in the long term, the decision to undergo surgery should be based on a high quality shared decision making process.
    BMJ Clinical Research 08/2014; 349:g3961. · 14.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Bariatric surgery is widely performed to improve obesity-related disorders, but can lead to nutrient deficiencies. In this study we examined serum trace element concentrations before and after bariatric surgery. Methods We obtained serum trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method in 437 patients (82% women, median preoperative body-mass index 46.7 kg/m2 [Interquartile range 42-51]) undergoing either gastric banding (22,7%), sleeve gastrectomy (20,1%), or gastric bypass (57,3%) procedures. Trace element data were available for patients preoperatively (n = 44); and 3 (n = 208), 6 (n = 174), 12 (n = 122), 18 (n = 39), 24 (n = 44) and 36 months (n = 14) post-operatively. All patients were recommended to take a multivitamin-mineral supplement after surgery. Results Copper deficiency was found in 2% of patients before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 0 to 5% with no significant change in median concentrations during follow-up (p = 0.68). Selenium deficiency was reported in 2% of patients before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 11 to 15% with a near-significant change in median concentrations (p = 0.056). Zinc deficiency was reported in 7% before surgery; and after surgery deficiency rates ranged from 7 to 15% with no significant change in median concentrations (p = 0.39). Conclusions In bariatric surgery patients recommended to take multivitamin-mineral supplements, serum copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were mostly stable during the first years after bariatric surgery. There was a possible tendency for selenium concentrations to decline during the early postoperative period.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 09/2014; · 2.49 Impact Factor