Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 E. Monument St, Ste 333, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.
Current Diabetes Reports (Impact Factor: 3.08). 09/2013; 13(6). DOI: 10.1007/s11892-013-0421-9
Source: PubMed


Health disparities in diabetes and its complications and comorbidities exist globally. A recent Endocrine Society Scientific Statement described the Health Disparities in several endocrine disorders, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we summarize that statement and provide novel updates on race/ethnic differences in children and adults with type 1 diabetes, children with type 2 diabetes, and in Latino subpopulations. We also review race/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of diabetes, prediabetes, and diabetes complications and mortality in the United States and globally. Finally, we discuss biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and health system contributors to diabetes disparities to identify areas for future preventive interventions.

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    ABSTRACT: Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin <7%, non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol <130 mg/dL, and blood pressure <140/<90 mm Hg in white, black, and Hispanic diabetics <65 years and ≥65 years of age. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 data were analyzed on diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetics ≥18 years old. Concurrent target attainment was higher in whites (18.7%) than blacks (13.4% [P = .02] and Hispanics [10.3%, P < .001] <65 years but not ≥65 years of age; 20.0% vs. 15.9% [P = .13], 19.5% [P = .88]). Disparities in health care insurance among younger whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively, (87.4% vs. 81.1%, P < .01; 68.0%, P < .001) and infrequent health care (0-1 visits/y; 14.3% vs. 15.0%, P = not significant; 32.0%, P < .001) declined with age. Cholesterol treatment predicted concurrent control in both age groups (multivariable odds ratio >2, P < .001). Risk factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.
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