Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 E. Monument St, Ste 333, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.Current Diabetes Reports (Impact Factor: 3.08). 09/2013; 13(6). DOI: 10.1007/s11892-013-0421-9
Health disparities in diabetes and its complications and comorbidities exist globally. A recent Endocrine Society Scientific Statement described the Health Disparities in several endocrine disorders, including type 2 diabetes. In this review, we summarize that statement and provide novel updates on race/ethnic differences in children and adults with type 1 diabetes, children with type 2 diabetes, and in Latino subpopulations. We also review race/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of diabetes, prediabetes, and diabetes complications and mortality in the United States and globally. Finally, we discuss biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and health system contributors to diabetes disparities to identify areas for future preventive interventions.
Article: Beyond "ethnicity" in dermatologyDermatologic clinics 04/2014; 32(2):ix-xii. DOI:10.1016/j.det.2014.01.001 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin <7%, non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol <130 mg/dL, and blood pressure <140/<90 mm Hg in white, black, and Hispanic diabetics <65 years and ≥65 years of age. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 data were analyzed on diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetics ≥18 years old. Concurrent target attainment was higher in whites (18.7%) than blacks (13.4% [P = .02] and Hispanics [10.3%, P < .001] <65 years but not ≥65 years of age; 20.0% vs. 15.9% [P = .13], 19.5% [P = .88]). Disparities in health care insurance among younger whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively, (87.4% vs. 81.1%, P < .01; 68.0%, P < .001) and infrequent health care (0-1 visits/y; 14.3% vs. 15.0%, P = not significant; 32.0%, P < .001) declined with age. Cholesterol treatment predicted concurrent control in both age groups (multivariable odds ratio >2, P < .001). Risk factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 06/2014; 8(6):394-404. DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2014.03.323 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Methods We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity. Results Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132321 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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