Comparing Methods for Assessing Beverage Intake among High School Students
ABSTRACT To compare 7 beverage intake survey questions against criterion data from 24-hour dietary recall interviews (24HrDRIs) among adolescents.
Data were available from 610 US high school students completing a survey and ≥3 24HrDRIs. Analyses compared mean intake (times/day) calculated from the survey to intake (servings/day) from the 24HrDRIs. Proportions of students reporting intake of ≥1 times/day were compared to the 24HrDRI results.
Survey data significantly correlated with 24HrDRI data (all corrected r: 0.26-0.49). Survey results differed from 24HrDRI results on reported intake of 5 beverages.
Intake from these beverage questions should be reported in times/day, which is related to, but not a proxy for, servings/day. These questions are useful for population-level surveillance of beverage intake and monitoring trends over time.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study, conducted from September 1999 to March 2000. The purpose of the study was to assess dietary measurement error using two self-reported dietary instruments-the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour dietary recall (24HR)-and unbiased biomarkers of energy and protein intakes: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen. Participants were 484 men and women aged 40-69 years from Montgomery County, Maryland. Nine percent of men and 7% of women were defined as underreporters of both energy and protein intake on 24HRs; for FFQs, the comparable values were 35% for men and 23% for women. On average, men underreported energy intake compared with total energy expenditure by 12-14% on 24HRs and 31-36% on FFQs and underreported protein intake compared with a protein biomarker by 11-12% on 24HRs and 30-34% on FFQs. Women underreported energy intake on 24HRs by 16-20% and on FFQs by 34-38% and underreported protein intake by 11-15% on 24HRs and 27-32% on FFQs. There was little underreporting of the percentage of energy from protein for men or women. These findings have important implications for nutritional epidemiology and dietary surveillance.American Journal of Epidemiology 08/2003; 158(1):1-13. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We propose a new statistical method that uses information from two 24-hour recalls to estimate usual intake of episodically consumed foods. The method developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) accommodates the large number of nonconsumption days that occur with foods by separating the probability of consumption from the consumption-day amount, using a two-part model. Covariates, such as sex, age, race, or information from a food frequency questionnaire, may supplement the information from two or more 24-hour recalls using correlated mixed model regression. The model allows for correlation between the probability of consuming a food on a single day and the consumption-day amount. Percentiles of the distribution of usual intake are computed from the estimated model parameters. The Eating at America's Table Study data are used to illustrate the method to estimate the distribution of usual intake for whole grains and dark-green vegetables for men and women and the distribution of usual intakes of whole grains by educational level among men. A simulation study indicates that the NCI method leads to substantial improvement over existing methods for estimating the distribution of usual intake of foods. The NCI method provides distinct advantages over previously proposed methods by accounting for the correlation between probability of consumption and amount consumed and by incorporating covariate information. Researchers interested in estimating the distribution of usual intakes of foods for a population or subpopulation are advised to work with a statistician and incorporate the NCI method in analyses.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 11/2006; 106(10):1575-87. DOI:10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.003 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: School nutrition policies limiting access to sweetened beverages, candy, and salty snacks have the potential to improve the health of children. To effectively evaluate policy success, appropriate and validated dietary assessment instruments are needed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a beverage and snack questionnaire suitable for use among young adolescents. A new 19-item Beverage and Snack Questionnaire (BSQ) was administered to middle school students on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure test-retest reliability. The questionnaire inquired about frequency of consumption, both at school and away from school, of soft drinks, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruits and vegetables. Students also completed 4-day food records. To assess validity, food-record data were compared with BSQ data. Forty-six students of diverse backgrounds from metropolitan Seattle, WA, participated in this study. Participants answered the BSQ during class time and completed the food record at home. Pearson correlation coefficients assessed test-retest reliability and validity. Using frequency per week data, the test-retest reliability coefficients were r=0.85 for fruits and vegetables consumed at school and r=0.74 and r=0.72 for beverages and sweets/snacks, respectively, consumed at school. Correlations ranged from r=0.73 to 0.77 for foods consumed outside of school. Compared with the criterion food record, validity coefficients were very good: r=0.69 to 0.71 for foods consumed at school and r=0.63 to 0.70 for foods consumed away from school. The validity coefficients for the 19 individual food items ranged from r=0.56 to 0.87. This easy-to-administer 19-item questionnaire captures data on sugar-sweetened beverages, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruit and vegetables as well as a more lengthy and expensive food record does. The BSQ can be used by nutrition researchers and practitioners to accurately evaluate student consumption of foods that are the focus of school nutrition policies.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 10/2009; 109(9):1587-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jada.2009.06.365 · 3.92 Impact Factor