Low-dose single acquisition rest Tc-99m/stress Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT protocol: phantom studies and clinical validation
ABSTRACT We developed and tested a single acquisition rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi/stress (201)Tl dual isotope protocol (SDI) with the intention of improving the clinical workflow and patient comfort of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
The technical feasibility of SDI was evaluated by a series of anthropomorphic phantom studies on a standard SPECT camera. The attenuation map was created by a moving transmission line source. Iterative reconstruction including attenuation correction, resolution recovery and Monte Carlo simulation of scatter was used for simultaneous reconstruction of dual tracer distribution. For clinical evaluation, patient studies were compared to stress (99m)Tc and rest (99m)Tc reference images acquired in a 2-day protocol. Clinical follow-up examinations like coronary angiography (CAG) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were included in the assessment if available.
Phantom studies demonstrated the technical feasibility of SDI. Artificial lesions inserted in the phantom mimicking ischaemia could be clearly identified. In 51/53 patients, the image quality was adequate for clinical evaluation. For the remaining two obese patients with body mass index > 32 the injected (201)Tl dose of 74 MBq was insufficient for clinical assessment. In answer to this the (201)Tl dose was adapted for obese patients in the rest of the study. In 31 patients, SDI and (99m)Tc reference images resulted in equivalent clinical assessment. Significant differences were found in 20 patients. In 18 of these 20 patients additional examinations were available. In 15 patients the diagnosis based on the SDI images was confirmed by the results of CAG or FFR. In these patients the SDI images were more accurate than the (99m)Tc reference study. In three patients minor ischaemic lesions were detected by SDI but were not confirmed by CAG. In one of these cases this was probably caused by pronounced apical thinning. For two patients no relevant clinical follow-up information was available for evaluation.
The proposed SDI protocol has the potential to improve clinical workflow and patient comfort and suggests improved accuracy as demonstrated in the clinical feasibility study.
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ABSTRACT: The initial myocardial uptake of thallium-201 depends on myocardial blood flow distribution. The phenomenon of delayed thallium redistribution after transiently or chronically altered myocardial perfusion has been described. The net myocardial accumulation of thallium-201 after injection depends upon the net balance between continuing myocardial extraction from low levels of recirculating thallium in the blood compartment and the net rate of efflux of thallium from the myocardium into the extracardiac blood pool. These experiments were designed to measure separately the myocardial extraction and intrinsic myocardial efflux of thallium-201 at normal and at reduced rates of myocardial blood flow. The average myocardial extraction fraction at normal blood flow in 10 anesthetized dogs was 82 +/- 6% (+/- SD) at normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures and increased insignificantly, to 85 +/- 7%, at coronary perfusion pressures of 10--35 mm Hg. At normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures in 12 additional dogs, the intrinsic thallium washout in the absence of systemic recirculation had a half-time (T 1/2) of 54 +/- 7 minutes. The intrinsic cellular washout rate began to increase as distal perfusion pressures fell below 60 mm Hg and increased markedly to a T 1/2 of 300 minutes at perfusion pressures of 25--30 mm Hg. A second, more rapid component of intrinsic thallium washout (T 1/2 2.5 minutes) representing approximately 7% of the total initially extracted myocardial thallium was observed. The faster washout component is presumed to be due to washout of interstitial thallium unextracted by myocardial cells, whereas the slower component is presumed due to intracellular washout. The net clearance time of thallium measured after i.v. injection is much longer than the intrinsic myocardial cellular washout rate because of continuous replacement of myocardial thallium from systemic recirculation. Myocardial redistribution of thallium-201 in states of chronically reduced perfusion cannot be the result of increased myocardial extraction efficiency, but rather, is the result of the slower intrinsic cellular washout rate at reduced perfusion levels.Circulation 10/1981; 64(3):610-8. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.64.3.610 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tetrofosmin is a 99mTc-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agent that has shown encouraging results in Phase I and II clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine the biokinetics of this agent following administration during exercise and at rest in order to determine an optimal imaging protocol. Twenty patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise. Six to 8 mCi of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was injected at peak exercise and 22-24 mCi was injected 4 hr later at rest. Serial 5-min planar images were obtained in the left anterior oblique view at 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the radiotracer injection. Regions of interest were drawn on the serial images around the entire heart and portions of liver, lung, spleen, gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract. Average decay-corrected counts per pixel in each organ were plotted against time. In addition, heart-to-adjacent organ ratios were also determined. On stress images, the heart had the highest activity at all times, with the exception of gallbladder in the first 15 min. On rest images, the gallbladder, liver and gastrointestinal tract initially had higher activity than the heart; but the activity in these organs cleared rapidly over the subsequent 30-60 min. Heart-to-adjacent organ ratios were > 1.0 at all times in the stress images. Heart-to-organ ratios were < 1.0 in the first 15 min on the rest images for the liver and gastrointestinal tract. However, 30 min later, all ratios on the rest images were > or = 1.0. Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin images were considered to be of good to excellent quality with good myocardial delineation and adequate contrast between the heart and background. These These observations indicate that a convenient one-day tetrofosmin imaging protocol similar in duration to conventional 201Tl imaging is feasible.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/1993; 34(8):1254-9. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Separate or simultaneous rest 201Tl/stress 99mTc-sestamibi dual-isotope SPECT are potentially efficient myocardial perfusion imaging protocols which combine the use of a high-resolution 99mTc tracer for stress perfusion assessment and 201Tl, the current single-photon agent of choice, for viability assessment. To investigate the feasibility of dual-isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT protocols using rest 201Tl and stress sestamibi, 201Tl crosstalk into the 99mTc acquisition window (Group 1, n = 26 patients) and 99mTc crosstalk into 201Tl windows (Group 2, n = 25) were studied. For Group 1, treadmill exercise with sestamibi injection and poststress SPECT ("virgin" sestamibi images) were performed, followed by rest 201Tl injection and SPECT acquisition using dual-isotope windows (contaminated or "dual" images). For Group 2, the order was reversed: rest 201Tl SPECT (virgin 201Tl images) was performed first, followed by exercise sestamibi injection and dual-isotope SPECT. The contribution of 201Tl scatter to the dual sestamibi images (Group 1) was measured to be 2.9% +/- 2.1%, while 99mTc crosstalk contributed 26.7% +/- 13.0% to the dual 201Tl images (Group 2). Image quality was considered good to excellent in 92% of the sestamibi (virgin and dual) images and 88% of the virgin 201Tl SPECT, but only in 23% of the dual 201Tl studies. Technetium-99m crosstalk into 201Tl windows is substantial; therefore, simultaneous dual-isotope protocols, which involve assessment of 201Tl images contaminated by 99mTc, are not recommended. On the other hand, because of the small amount of 201Tl crosstalk into the 99mTc window, a separate acquisition dual-isotope approach employing the rest 201Tl (virgin)/stress sestamibi sequence is acceptable.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/1994; 35(4):542-8. · 5.56 Impact Factor