Multispectral Quantitative MR Imaging of the Human Brain: Lifetime Age-related Effects.
ABSTRACT Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows visualization of age-related changes in the normal human brain from functional, biochemical, and morphologic perspectives. Findings at quantitative MR imaging support age-related microstructural changes in the brain: (a) volume expansion, increased myelination, and axonal growth, which establish neural connectivity in neurodevelopment, followed by (b) volume loss, myelin breakdown, and axonal degradation, leading to the disruption of neural integrity later in life. A rapid growth change followed by a continuous slower change in quantitative MR parameters can be modeled with a logarithmic or exponential decay function. The age dependencies during adulthood often fit a quadratic model for transitional changes with accelerated aging effects or a linear model for steady changes.Understanding these general trends over the human life span can improve assessment for a specific disease by helping determine appropriate study settings. Once a consensus on acquisition techniques and image processing algorithms has been reached, quantitative MR imaging can play an important role in the assessment of disease states affecting the brain.
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ABSTRACT: To present a normative volumetric database, spanning 5 decades of life, of cerebrospinal fluid, subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid, total brain volume, total ventricular volume (component ventricular volumes of lateral, temporal horn, and third and fourth ventricles) and estimates of white and gray matter, based on a multispectral segmentation of brain MR. This database is presented as a reference for future studies comparing pathologic states. One hundred ninety-four healthy subjects, ranging in age from 16 to 65 years, received standard axial intermediate- and T2-weighted spin-echo MR images. Multispectral segmentation and volume analysis were performed using ANALYZE. Normative volumetric estimates, both uncorrected and corrected for differences in total intracranial volume, were obtained for all subjects and presented by decade and sex. Age-related cerebrospinal fluid changes were evident for both male and female subjects. Most gender differences were eliminated by correction for differences in total intracranial volume. Standard and fast spin-echo acquisition methods gave comparable volume estimates. Total brain volume measurements from MR compare favorably with data from large autopsy series. Although there may be limitations to generalizations, these normative data tables can provide a comparison index for contrasting pathologic groups with a normative sample.American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/1995; 16(2):241-51. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To establish a normal baseline of the percent magnetization transfer of gray (cortical and deep) and white matter structures in the brain in healthy adults and to determine whether there are adult age-related differences in these measurements. Axial T1-weighted scans (800/20 [repetition time/echo time]) with and without magnetization transfer were prospectively performed on a 1.5-T MR imaging unit on 68 healthy patients (aged 20 to 76 years). Presaturation and postsaturation magnetization transfer images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial pulse. All patients had normal MR scans on all pulse sequences. A calculated "difference" image was used to calculate the percent magnetization transfer in multiple specific regions of the brain. In each hemisphere, 9 discrete areas of cortical and deep gray matter and 29 areas of white matter were measured in 68 patients to generate age-related changes in percent magnetization transfer in these anatomic regions. Ranges of normal percent magnetization transfer in each of the 38 measures were established. The percent magnetization transfer of the gray matter (28% +/- 2%) was lower than that of the white matter (36% +/- 2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the percent magnetization transfer in different areas of gray matter. Deep white matter in the different lobes (percent magnetization transfer, 31% to 38%) also showed no differences by age. Percent magnetization transfer was the highest in the genu of the corpus callosum (42%), and this was statistically significant compared with other white matter measurements. There were no statistically significant age-related variations in the percent magnetization transfer in healthy adults in gray or white matter. These percent magnetization transfer measurements provide baseline normative data, which can be used to measure the extent and severity of white matter changes in disease states.American Journal of Neuroradiology 16(10):2085-91. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is unknown to what extent magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in white matter of the brain changes during myelination. The goal of this study was to measure the age-dependent changes of MTC in different regions of the pediatric brain and to evaluate their relation to T2 relaxation times. Seventy children aged 1 week to 80 months without evidence of organic brain disease underwent MR imaging of the brain. A double-echo spin-echo (SE) sequence and an SE sequence with and without an off-resonance pulse were performed in the axial orientation. Using paired images, we calculated MTC ratios in 13 predefined regions of the brain and compared them with the T2 relaxation times measured in the same areas. Regression analysis was performed for both parameters to evaluate age dependency. MTC in white matter increased during myelination from a range of 13% to 19% to a range of 34% to 37%. At the same time, T2 relaxation times decreased from a range of 115 to 160 milliseconds to a range of 60 to 70 milliseconds after myelination. For both MTC and T2 relaxation times, age dependency could be expressed by a monoexponential function. A strong positive correlation exists between MTC ratios and the degree of myelination in the pediatric brain, and an inverse correlation exists between MTC and T2 relaxation times. Fast proton relaxation within macromolecules in the myelinated white matter and subsequent MT may be the most important reason for the decreasing T2 relaxation time of white matter during brain myelination.American Journal of Neuroradiology 19(10):1923-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor