Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption.

Bordeaux, France.
Gut (Impact Factor: 13.32). 01/2013; 62(1):34-42.

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Resistance to antibiotics is the major cause of treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori infection. A study was conducted to assess prospectively the antibacterial resistance rates of H pylori in Europe and to study the link between outpatient antibiotic use and resistance levels in different countries. DESIGN: Primary antibiotic resistance rates of H pylori were determined from April 2008 to June 2009 in 18 European countries. Data on yearly and cumulative use over several years of systemic antibacterial agents in ambulatory care for the period 2001-8 were expressed in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day. The fit of models and the degree of ecological association between antibiotic use and resistance data were assessed using generalised linear mixed models. RESULTS: Of 2204 patients included, H pylori resistance rates for adults were 17.5% for clarithromycin, 14.1% for levofloxacin and 34.9% for metronidazole, and were significantly higher for clarithromycin and levofloxacin in Western/Central and Southern Europe (>20%) than in Northern European countries (<10%). Model fit improved for each additional year of antibiotic use accumulated, but the best fit was obtained for 2005. A significant association was found between outpatient quinolone use and the proportion of levofloxacin resistance (p=0.0013) and between the use of long-acting macrolides only and clarithromycin resistance (p=0.036). CONCLUSION: In many countries the high rate of clarithromycin resistance no longer allows its empirical use in standard anti-H pylori regimens. The knowledge of outpatient antibiotic consumption may provide a simple tool to predict the susceptibility of H pylori to quinolones and to macrolides and to adapt the treatment strategies.

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    ABSTRACT: To access the efficacy of combination with amoxicillin and tetracycline for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), thus providing clinical practice guidelines. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chinese Biomedical Literature databases and abstract books of major European, American, and Asian gastroenterological meetings were searched. All clinical trials that examined the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies and included both tetracycline and amoxicillin in one study arm were selected for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (Version 2). Subgroup, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.42-1.78) for quadruple therapy with amoxicillin and tetracycline vs other quadruple regimens, and total eradication rates were 78.1% by intention-to-treat (ITT) and 84.5% by per-protocol (PP) analyses in the experimental groups. The pooled eradication rates of 14-d quadruple regimens with a combination of amoxicillin and tetracycline were 82.3% by ITT and 89.0% by PP, and those of 10-d regimens were 84.6% by ITT and 93.7% by PP. The OR by ITT were 1.21 (95%CI: 0.64-2.28) for triple regimens with amoxicillin and tetracycline vs other regimens and 1.81 (95%CI: 1.37-2.41) for sequential treatment with amoxicillin and tetracycline vs other regimens, respectively. The effectiveness of regimens employing amoxicillin and tetracycline for H. pylori eradication may be not inferior to other regimens, but further study should be necessary.
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10(-9) which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens.
    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 12/2014; 7(12):e13081. DOI:10.5812/jjm.13081 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the performance of the microcapillary culture method (MCM) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolation and diagnosis. Microcapillary culture (MC), classical culture (CC), rapid urease (CLO) test, and histopathologic examination (HE) were performed with biopsy samples. Homogenized biopsy samples were loaded into capillary tubes and incubated for 48 h at 37 °C without providing a microaerophilic environment. Additionally, three or four loops of the homogenized sample were inoculated in a ready-to-use selective medium (Becton Dickinson, Helicobacter Agar, Modified) specific for the isolation of H. pylori and incubated at 37 °C in a microaerophilic atmosphere provided by CampyGen (Becton Dickinson, GasPack). Bacteria reproducing in microcapillary tubes were evaluated in an inverted microscope and also were evaluated after performing a CC with the content. Results obtained by CC, CLO test, and HE were compared with those of MC. The diagnostic performances of the methods used in this study were evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and CI. H. pylori was found positive by CLO test + HE and/or CC culture in 26 patient antrum and corpus biopsy samples. In 25 (25/26) patient biopsy samples, H. pylori was isolated by MCM, whereas in only 14 (14/26) patient biopsy samples, H. pylori was isolated by CC. CLO test and HE were found positive in 17 (17/26) patient biopsy samples. Comparing the results of the isolation of H. pylori by MCM, CC, CLO test, and HE, the sensitivity of the MCM was found as 96%, the specificity as 80%, the PPV as 83%, the NPV as 95%, and the 95%CI as 0.76 (χ (2) = 31.51, P < 0.01) whereas the sensitivity of the CC was found as 54% (χ (2) = 19.15, P < 0.01), and the sensitivity of the CLO test and HE were found as 65% (χ (2) = 25.26, P < 0.01). This new microcapillary cultivation method for H. pylori has high diagnostic sensitivity compared with CC, HE, and CLO tests.


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May 28, 2014