Differential activation of catalase expression and activity by PPAR agonists: Implications for astrocyte protection in anti-glioma therapy

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.
Redox biology 01/2013; 1(1):70-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2012.12.006
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Glioma survival is dismal, in part, due to an imbalance in antioxidant expression and activity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists have antineoplastic properties which present new redox-dependent targets for glioma anticancer therapies. Herein, we demonstrate that treatment of primary cultures of normal rat astrocytes with PPAR agonists increased the expression of catalase mRNA protein, and enzymatic activity. In contrast, these same agonists had no effect on catalase expression and activity in malignant rat glioma cells. The increase in steady-state catalase mRNA observed in normal rat astrocytes was due, in part, to de novo mRNA synthesis as opposed to increased catalase mRNA stability. Moreover, pioglitazone-mediated induction of catalase activity in normal rat astrocytes was completely blocked by transfection with a PPARγ-dominant negative plasmid. These data suggest that defects in PPAR-mediated signaling and gene expression may represent a block to normal catalase expression and induction in malignant glioma. The ability of PPAR agonists to differentially increase catalase expression and activity in normal astrocytes but not glioma cells suggests that these compounds might represent novel adjuvant therapeutic agents for the treatment of gliomas.

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Available from: Frederick E Domann, Apr 14, 2014
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    • "In addition, although decreased CAT and SOD activities have been observed in ischemically injured rat myocardium (which induces excessive ROS generation), the administration of proanthocyanidin derived from grapeseeds effectively increases the activities of CAT and SOD [36]. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been proven to suppress ROS generation through transcriptional up-regulation of a set of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT and CuZn-SOD [37]–[40]. Moreover, there is evidence demonstrating that some natural polyphenols, such as resveratrol, apigenin, carvacrol and humulon, can activate PPARs-dependent signaling [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate how the activity and expression of certain paramount antioxidant enzymes respond to grape seed extract (GSE) addition in primary muscle cells of goats. Gluteal primary muscle cells (PMCs) isolated from a 3-week old goat were cultivated as an unstressed cell model, or they were exposed to 100 µM H2O2 to establish a H2O2-stimulated cell model. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in combination with other relevant antioxidant indexes [i.e., reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC)] in response to GSE addition were tested in the unstressed and H2O2-stimulated cell models, and the relative mRNA levels of the CAT, GuZu-SOD, and GPx-1 genes were measured by qPCR. In unstressed PMCs, GSE addition at the dose of 10 µg/ml strikingly attenuated the expression levels of CAT and CuZn-SOD as well as the corresponding enzyme activities. By contrast, in cells pretreated with 100 µM H2O2, the expression and activity levels of these two antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml. GSE addition promoted GPx activity in both unstressed and stressed PMCs, while the expression of the GPx 1 gene displayed partial divergence with GPx activity, which was mitigated by GSE addition at 10 µg/ml in unstressed PMCs. GSH remained comparatively stable except for GSE addition to H2O2-stimulated PMCs at 60 µg/ml, in which a dramatic depletion of GSH occurred. Moreover, GSE addition enhanced TAOC in unstressed (but not H2O2-stimulated) PMCs. GSE addition exerted a bidirectional modulating effect on the mRNA levels and activities of CAT and SOD in unstressed and stressed PMCs at a moderate dose, and it only exhibited a unidirectional effect on the promotion of GPx activity, reflecting its potential to improve antioxidant protection in ruminants.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107670. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107670 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Catalase is an enzyme involved in the neutralization of reactive oxygen species and its gene contains a PPAR genomic binding site (44). Studies have suggested that the cytotoxic effect of PPARγ agonists on glioma cells is partially mediated by enhanced redox reactions (44). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary intrinsic central nervous system tumor and has an extremely poor overall survival with only 10% patients being alive after 5 years. There has been interesting preliminary evidence suggesting that diabetic patients receiving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, a group of anti-diabetic, thiazolidinedione drugs, have an increased median survival for glioblastoma. Although thiazolidinediones are effective oral medications for type 2 diabetes, certain agonists carry the risk for congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disease, bone loss, weight gain, and fluid retention as side-effects. The nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ has been found to be expressed in high grade gliomas, and its activation has been shown to have several antineoplastic effects on human and rat glioma cell lines, and in some instances an additional protective increase in antioxidant enzymes has been observed in normal astrocytes. At present, no clinical trials are underway with regards to treating glioma patients using PPARγ agonists. This review presents the case for evaluating the potential of PPARγ agonists as novel adjuvants in the treatment of refractory high grade glioma.
    Frontiers in Oncology 03/2014; 4:52. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00052
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    • "Redox signaling and cell death is represented by an interesting paper suggesting that histone modifications are mediated by oxidative stress [20] and in another paper an exploration of the mechanisms of arsenite toxicity [21]. Hydrogen peroxide, its regulation and signaling are linked to PPAR and some of the mechanisms of its interaction with superoxide dismutase are described in papers [22] [23]. "
    01/2013; 1(1):17-8. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2013.01.010
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