Erratum to: Early gallbladder carcinoma has a favorable outcome but Rokitansky–Aschoff sinus involvement is an adverse prognostic factor

Department of Pathology, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, .
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin (Impact Factor: 2.65). 09/2013; 463(6). DOI: 10.1007/s00428-013-1478-1
Source: PubMed


The general impression about gallbladder carcinomas is that they are uniformly fatal; however, for the early forms, an entirely different picture indicating a very good prognosis is evolving from the high-incidence regions. We subjected 190 early gallbladder carcinomas (EGBC), defined as carcinomas confined to and above the tunica muscularis (AJCC's Tis, T1a, and T1b), and identified in cholecystectomy specimens sampled entirely according to an established protocol, to detailed analysis. Average patient age was 57.9 years (29-95). In more than half of the cases (114/190; 60 %), the tumor was inapparent by gross examination. In 81 cases (42.6 %), carcinomatous epithelium abutted the muscularis, whereas 57.4 % (n = 109) were qualified as intramucosal with no overt contiguity with muscularis. Intraepithelial extension into Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RAS) was found in 34 cases (17.8 %). At the time of data analysis, 171 patients (99 %) were alive. Overall actuarial survival was 92.3 % at 5 years and 90.4 % at 10 years. The 5- and 10-year actuarial survival rates of the intramucosal group (93.2 and 92.1 %, respectively) were not statistically different from that of the muscle-abutting group (89.7 % and 88.2 % ; p = 0.334). Patients with RAS involvement had a significantly shorter survival than those without (p < 0.001). Of the 33 patients with RAS involvement, 13 (39 %) died of disease, whereas only 6 of the 154 patients (4 %) without RAS involvement died of disease. Disease-related mortality in these cases occurred relatively late (median 48 months). EGBC has a very good prognosis with a 90 % 10-year survival rate. It is seen on average in patients almost a decade younger than those with advanced cancers. RAS involvement is an independent prognostic factor, and additional surgery may have to be considered for such cases. Occasional recurrences are encountered several years later, which suggests a field-effect phenomenon and warrants long-term follow-up.

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Available from: Carlos Manterola, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Overall, 5-year survival rates are close to 90% for T1 tumors [4] [5]. As regards mucosal tumors (T1a), any therapy beyond a cholecystectomy seems unnecessary except in those cases where the Rokistansky Aschoff sinuses are superficially compromised; even in the absence of evident infiltration of the surrounding tissues, these cases have a significantly worse prognosis similar to advanced tumors, suggesting that a second extended surgery is needed [6]. However, for those with muscular invasion (T1b), the controversy regarding the need for further treatment continues but gradually the opinion in favor of extended surgery has gained position among the surgeons [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. The complete surgical resection is the only potentially curative approach in early stage; however, most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages and the response to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is extremely limited, with modest impact in overall survival. The recent progress in understanding the molecular alterations of gallbladder cancer has shown great promise for the development of more effective treatment strategies. This has mainly resulted from the identification of molecular alterations in relevant intracellular signaling pathways — Hedgehog, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Notch, ErbB, MAPK and angiogenesis— which are potential tailored targets for gallbladder cancer patients. This review discusses the recent remarkable progress in understanding the molecular alterations that represent novel prognosis molecular markers and therapeutic targets for gallbladder cancer, which will provide opportunities for research and for developing innovative strategies that may enhance the benefit of conventional chemotherapy, or eventually modify the fatal natural history of this orphan disease.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 01/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.01.003 · 7.59 Impact Factor

  • Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 03/2015; 112(3):464-73. DOI:10.11405/nisshoshi.112.464
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    ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer (GBC), is a common neoplasm in our country. The overall survival rate (OSR) does not exceed 40% at 5 years. The invasion of the serosa and IIIB stage, are associated with lower OSR seen it are an advanced stage of the disease, so there is no consensus on the role of surgery in this type ofpatients. The aim of this study is to analyze the existing evidence concerning the role of surgery in the treatment of a patient with stage IIIb GBC. A systematic search of available evidence in the databases Clinical Evidence, National Health Service, Health Technology Assessment, Tripdatabase, Cochrane Library and PubMed search was performed. Evidence summary documents (overviews, GRADE tables, Clinical Guidelines/CG), secondary articles (systematic reviews) and primary articles (Clinical trials/CT) and observational studies/OS) were searched. Subsequently, evidence was classified as proposed by EMBC 2009. A total of 420 related documents were found: 25 overviews, 15 GRADE tables, 30 CG, 37 SR, 99 CT and 214 OS. In reviewing at length all documents; It was verified that only 17 were related to results of surgical treatment of GC that stage III was mentioned and 5 refer to this (3 OS, 1 CG and a recommendation from NCI), but none of them to the IIIb stage. There are few related studies, most of them are retrospective, with a small number of patients included, heterogeneous population and surgical procedures; thereby, it is difficult to draw conclusions and make recommendations based on the evidence.
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