Erratum to: Early gallbladder carcinoma has a favorable outcome but Rokitansky–Aschoff sinus involvement is an adverse prognostic factor
ABSTRACT The general impression about gallbladder carcinomas is that they are uniformly fatal; however, for the early forms, an entirely different picture indicating a very good prognosis is evolving from the high-incidence regions. We subjected 190 early gallbladder carcinomas (EGBC), defined as carcinomas confined to and above the tunica muscularis (AJCC's Tis, T1a, and T1b), and identified in cholecystectomy specimens sampled entirely according to an established protocol, to detailed analysis. Average patient age was 57.9 years (29-95). In more than half of the cases (114/190; 60 %), the tumor was inapparent by gross examination. In 81 cases (42.6 %), carcinomatous epithelium abutted the muscularis, whereas 57.4 % (n = 109) were qualified as intramucosal with no overt contiguity with muscularis. Intraepithelial extension into Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RAS) was found in 34 cases (17.8 %). At the time of data analysis, 171 patients (99 %) were alive. Overall actuarial survival was 92.3 % at 5 years and 90.4 % at 10 years. The 5- and 10-year actuarial survival rates of the intramucosal group (93.2 and 92.1 %, respectively) were not statistically different from that of the muscle-abutting group (89.7 % and 88.2 % ; p = 0.334). Patients with RAS involvement had a significantly shorter survival than those without (p < 0.001). Of the 33 patients with RAS involvement, 13 (39 %) died of disease, whereas only 6 of the 154 patients (4 %) without RAS involvement died of disease. Disease-related mortality in these cases occurred relatively late (median 48 months). EGBC has a very good prognosis with a 90 % 10-year survival rate. It is seen on average in patients almost a decade younger than those with advanced cancers. RAS involvement is an independent prognostic factor, and additional surgery may have to be considered for such cases. Occasional recurrences are encountered several years later, which suggests a field-effect phenomenon and warrants long-term follow-up.
- SourceAvailable from: Jaime Espinoza
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- "Overall, 5-year survival rates are close to 90% for T1 tumors  . As regards mucosal tumors (T1a), any therapy beyond a cholecystectomy seems unnecessary except in those cases where the Rokistansky Aschoff sinuses are superficially compromised; even in the absence of evident infiltration of the surrounding tissues, these cases have a significantly worse prognosis similar to advanced tumors, suggesting that a second extended surgery is needed . However, for those with muscular invasion (T1b), the controversy regarding the need for further treatment continues but gradually the opinion in favor of extended surgery has gained position among the surgeons . "
ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. The complete surgical resection is the only potentially curative approach in early stage; however, most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages and the response to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is extremely limited, with modest impact in overall survival. The recent progress in understanding the molecular alterations of gallbladder cancer has shown great promise for the development of more effective treatment strategies. This has mainly resulted from the identification of molecular alterations in relevant intracellular signaling pathways — Hedgehog, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Notch, ErbB, MAPK and angiogenesis— which are potential tailored targets for gallbladder cancer patients. This review discusses the recent remarkable progress in understanding the molecular alterations that represent novel prognosis molecular markers and therapeutic targets for gallbladder cancer, which will provide opportunities for research and for developing innovative strategies that may enhance the benefit of conventional chemotherapy, or eventually modify the fatal natural history of this orphan disease.Cancer Treatment Reviews 01/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.01.003 · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b-2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.HPB 08/2015; 17(8):681-90. DOI:10.1111/hpb.12444 · 2.05 Impact Factor