Safety and immunogenicity of three tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations in healthy adults in the USA
ABSTRACT A candidate recombinant, live-attenuated, CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has recently demonstrated immunogenicity, efficacy and good tolerability. This study was performed to evaluate three CYD-TDV formulations in adults.
This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase II trial. The vaccine formulations were: CYD-TDV 5555 (≈5log10 tissue culture infectious dose 50% [TCID50] of serotypes 1-4); CYD-TDV 5553 (≈5log10 TCID50 of serotypes 1-3 and ≈3log10 TCID50 of serotype 4); and CYD-TDV 4444 (≈4log10 TCID50 of serotypes 1-4). Vaccinations were administered at 0, 6 and 12 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using the plaque reduction neutralization test.
In total, 260 individuals were enrolled. The 5555 formulation elicited a superior serotype 4 response versus the 5553 formulation, with seropositivity rates of 89.7% and 58.3%, respectively, after the second dose (between-group difference 31.4%; 95% confidence interval 18.2-43.2). After each of the three doses, seropositivity rates for serotypes 1-3 were numerically highest with CYD-TDV 5553 and lowest with the 4444 formulation; seropositivity rates for serotype 4 were similar with the 5555 and 4444 formulations, and much lower among recipients of CYD-TDV 5553. Geometric mean titers followed the same pattern as that seen with seropositivity rates. Safety/reactogenicity results were similar for all three vaccine formulations, although the percentage of participants reporting solicited injection site reactions was lower with CYD-TDV 4444 than with the other two formulations. All serious adverse events were unrelated to vaccination.
Reducing the dose of serotype 4 antigen (5553 formulation) creates an imbalance in the immune response to CYD-TDV. Immune responses to CYD-TDV 5555 were slightly higher than to the 4444 formulation. Development of CYD-TDV 5555 has subsequently been pursued.
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ABSTRACT: Background Dengue virus is the most serious mosquito-borne viral threat to public health and no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved for dengue fever. The tetravalent DENVax vaccine contains a molecularly characterised live attenuated dengue serotype-2 virus (DENVax-2) and three recombinant vaccine viruses expressing the prM and E structural genes for serotypes 1, 3, and 4 in the DENVax-2 genetic backbone. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of tetravalent DENVax formulations. Methods We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 1, dose-escalation trial between Oct 11, 2011, and Nov 9, 2011, in the Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The first cohort of participants (aged 18–45 years) were randomly assigned centrally, via block randomisation, to receive a low-dose formulation of DENvax, or placebo, by either subcutaneous or intradermal administration. After a safety assessment, participants were randomly assigned to receive a high-dose DENVax formulation, or placebo, by subcutaneous or intradermal administration. Group assignment was not masked from study pharmacists, but allocation was concealed from participants, nurses, and investigators. Primary endpoints were frequency and severity of injection-site and systemic reactions within 28 days of each vaccination. Secondary endpoints were the immunogenicity of DENVax against all four dengue virus serotypes, and the viraemia due to each of the four vaccine components after immunisation. Analysis was by intention to treat for safety and per protocol for immunogenicity. Because of the small sample size, no detailed comparison of adverse event rates were warranted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01224639. Findings We randomly assigned 96 patients to one of the four study groups: 40 participants (42%) received low-dose vaccine and eight participants (8%) received placebo in the low-dose groups; 39 participants (41%) received high-dose vaccine, with nine (9%) participants assigned to receive placebo. Both formulations were well tolerated with mostly mild and transient local or systemic reactions. No clinically meaningful differences were recorded in the overall incidence of local and systemic adverse events between patients in the vaccine and placebo groups; 68 (86%) of 79 participants in the vaccine groups had solicited systemic adverse events compared with 13 (76%) of 17 of those in the placebo groups. By contrast, 67 participants (85%) in the vaccine group had local solicited reactions compared with five (29%) participants in the placebo group. Immunisation with either high-dose or low-dose DENVax formulations induced neutralising antibody responses to all four dengue virus serotypes; 30 days after the second dose, 47 (62%) of 76 participants given vaccine seroconverted to all four serotypes and 73 (96%) participants seroconverted to three or more dengue viruses. Infectious DENVax viruses were detected in only ten (25%) of 40 participants in the low-dose group and 13 (33%) of 39 participants in the high-dose group. Interpretation Our findings emphasise the acceptable tolerability and immunogenicity of the tetravalent DENVax formulations in healthy, flavivirus-naive adults. Further clinical testing of DENVax in different age groups and in dengue-endemic areas is warranted. Funding Takeda Vaccines.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 14(9). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70811-4 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In light of the increasing rate of dengue infections throughout the world despite vector-control measures, several dengue vaccine candidates are in development. Methods In a phase 3 efficacy trial of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in five Latin American countries where dengue is endemic, we randomly assigned healthy children between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a 2:1 ratio to receive three injections of recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) or placebo at months 0, 6, and 12 under blinded conditions. The children were then followed for 25 months. The primary outcome was vaccine efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue (VCD), regardless of disease severity or serotype, occurring more than 28 days after the third injection. Results A total of 20,869 healthy children received either vaccine or placebo. At baseline, 79.4% of an immunogenicity subgroup of 1944 children had seropositive status for one or more dengue serotypes. In the per-protocol population, there were 176 VCD cases (with 11,793 person-years at risk) in the vaccine group and 221 VCD cases (with 5809 person-years at risk) in the control group, for a vaccine efficacy of 60.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.0 to 68.0). In the intention-to-treat population (those who received at least one injection), vaccine efficacy was 64.7% (95% CI, 58.7 to 69.8). Serotype-specific vaccine efficacy was 50.3% for serotype 1, 42.3% for serotype 2, 74.0% for serotype 3, and 77.7% for serotype 4. Among the severe VCD cases, 1 of 12 was in the vaccine group, for an intention-to-treat vaccine efficacy of 95.5%. Vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for dengue was 80.3%. The safety profile for the CYD-TDV vaccine was similar to that for placebo, with no marked difference in rates of adverse events. Conclusions The CYD-TDV dengue vaccine was efficacious against VCD and severe VCD and led to fewer hospitalizations for VCD in five Latin American countries where dengue is endemic. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01374516 .).New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 372(2). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1411037 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the first report of a phase 3 vaccine efficacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children.The Lancet 07/2014; 384(9951). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61060-6 · 39.21 Impact Factor