Longitudinal evaluation of Endothelial Function in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: a long term follow up study.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41124, Modena, Italy.
Pediatrics International (Impact Factor: 0.73). 09/2013; 56(2). DOI: 10.1111/ped.12220
Source: PubMed


Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) predisposes to cardiovascular disease increasing the risk to develop atherosclerosis. In pediatric population the cardiovascular risk may be evaluated examining endothelial function by a noninvasive ultrasound technique, namely flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. The aims of this study were the longitudinal evaluation of the potential change in the endothelium-dependent vasomotor function in children and adolescents with T1DM and the identification of clinical and laboratory data correlated to modifications.
We studied 39 T1DM patients (20 girls and 19 boys; aged 11.2 ± 3.72 years). FMD and blood samples were obtained from all patients at baseline (time 0) and after a follow-up of at least 1 year (time 1). FMD was also evaluated in 45 healthy controls (22 boys, 23 girls) aged 10.2 ± 3.05 years.
At time 0, 43.6% T1DM patients presented an impaired FMD. FMD at time 1 revealed a dramatic impairment of endothelial function: altered FMD values were shown in 61.5% of patients and it got worse in 74.3% of them. Longitudinally males had a greater impairment of FMD than females. At baseline multivariate analysis identified only gender as significant predictor of FMD (β = 0.470, p = 0.029).
Because endothelial dysfunction appears earlier in diabetic children, they are at higher risk to develop atherosclerosis. Our results suggest the usefulness of FMD as a tool to stratify pediatric T1DM patients according to their cardiovascular risk and to follow up them longitudinally.

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Available from: Barbara Predieri, May 20, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggested an impaired endothelial function in patients with diabetes. However, the validity of this finding may be limited by the lack of adequate adjustment for further cardiovascular confounders. We assessed endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes in comparison with non-diabetic controls. The study population comprised 1487 subjects including 122 subjects with type 2 diabetes, aged 25 to 85, from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania, and 65 outpatients, aged 23 to 75, with type 1 diabetes. FMD measurements were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. Subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were matched 1:4 to healthy controls using propensity score matching. Neither type 1 diabetes (beta = 0.142; SE = 0.568, p = 0.803) nor type 2 diabetes (beta = 0.107; SE = 0.340, p = 0.752) were significantly associated with FMD in comparison with their non-diabetic controls after adjustment for major cardiovascular confounders like age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, antihypertensive medication, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. In this population-based study comparing adjusted FMD values of diabetic individuals with adequately matched controls, propensity score analyses revealed no association between diabetes and endothelial function. Since these findings are in discordance with the majority of previous reports, we suggest performing similar analyses using data from other population-based studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis, associated with higher rates of micro and macro vascular involvement such as coronary artery disease and renal disease. The role of hyperglycemia to induce synthesis of reactive oxygen species by the oxidation of glucose, leading to an increased production of advanced glycosylation end products, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction (ED). The interaction between C-peptide - the connecting segment of pro-insulin-and nitric oxide in vasodilation is also discussed. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an early marker of vascular disorder in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some other diseases, ED has been considered an independent predictor of vascular disease, regardless of the method used. Studies have demonstrated the importance of endothelial dysfunction as an useful tool for identifying the risk of vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, particularly as regards to renal impairment. The aim of this review is to clarify the prognostic value of endothelial dysfunction as a marker of vascular disease in these subjects.
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    ABSTRACT: Macro and microvascular disease are the main cause of morbi-mortality in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Although there is a clear association between endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes, a cause-effect relationship is less clear in T1DM. Although endothelial dysfunction (ED) precedes atherosclerosis, it is not clear weather, in recent onset T1DM, it may progress to clinical macrovascular disease. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction may either be reversed spontaneously or in response to intensive glycemic control, long-term exercise training and use of statins. Acute, long-term and post-prandial hyperglycemia as well as duration of diabetes and microalbuminuria are all conditions associated with ED in T1DM. The pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction is closely related to oxidative-stress. NAD(P)H oxidase over activity induces excessive superoxide production inside the mitochondrial oxidative chain of endothelial cells, thus reducing nitric oxide bioavailability and resulting in peroxynitrite formation, a potent oxidant agent. Moreover, oxidative stress also uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which becomes dysfunctional, inducing formation of superoxide. Other important mechanisms are the activation of both the polyol and protein kinase C pathways as well as the presence of advanced glycation end-products. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential clinical applicability of endothelial dysfunction as a marker for early vascular complications in T1DM.
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