Psychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are prevalent but undertreated.
ABSTRACT Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic disorder with high rates of psychosis and other psychopathologies, but few studies discuss treatment. Our aim was to characterize the prevalence and treatment of major psychiatric illnesses in a well-characterized sample of individuals with 22q11DS.
This was a cross-sectional study of 112 individuals aged 8 to 45 years with a confirmed diagnosis of 22q11DS. Each participant was administered a modified Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS) and the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Phenotypes assessed were threshold and subthreshold psychosis, depression, mania, generalized and separation anxiety, obsessions/compulsions, inattention/hyperactivity and substance use. Histories of mental health care and current psychotropic treatment were obtained.
Psychopathology was common, with 79% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for a disorder at the time of assessment. Diagnoses of psychosis were made in 11% of cases, attenuated positive symptom syndrome (APS) in 21%, and 47% experienced significant subthreshold symptoms. Peak occurrence of psychosis risk was during adolescence (62% of those aged 12-17 years). Criteria for a mood disorder were met by 14%, for anxiety disorder 34% and for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 31%. Mental health care had been received by 63% of individuals in their lifetime, but only 40% continued therapy and 39% used psychotropics. Antipsychotics were used by 42% of participants with psychosis and none of the participants with APS. Half of those at risk for psychosis were receiving no mental health care.
Psychopathology is common in 22q11DS but is not adequately treated or clinically followed. Particular attention should be paid to subthreshold psychotic symptoms, especially in adolescents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) confers 25% risk for psychosis and is an invaluable window for understanding the neurobiological substrate of psychosis risk. The Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is well validated in non-deleted populations for detecting clinical risk but has been only recently applied to 22q11DS. We assessed the largest 22q11DS cohort to date and report on SIPS implementation and symptoms elicited. Method The SIPS, including its 19 subscales, was administered to 157 individuals with 22q11DS aged 8 to 25. Youth and caregiver interviews were conducted and rated separately, then compared for agreement. Implementation of the SIPS in 22q11DS was challenging due to the prevalence of developmental delay and comorbid conditions. However, by explaining questions and eliciting examples, we were able to help youths and caregivers understand and respond appropriately. Consensus ratings were formulated and analyzed with item-wise and factor analysis. Results Subthreshold symptoms were common, with 85% of individuals endorsing one or more. The most commonly rated items were ideational richness (47%) and trouble with focus and attention (44%). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution with positive, negative, and disorganized components. Youth-caregiver comparisons suggested that youths report greater symptoms of perceptual abnormalities, suspiciousness, trouble with emotional expression, and bizarre thinking. Caregivers reported more impaired tolerance to normal stress, poor hygiene, and inattention. Conclusion The SIPS was adapted for 22q11DS through comprehensive and semi-structured administration methods, yielding a high prevalence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. The significance and predictive validity of these symptoms require future longitudinal analysis.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 09/2014; 53(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.05.009 · 6.35 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk of developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities starting at a young age. To determine whether early cognitive decline is associated with risk of psychotic disorder in 22q11DS. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. As part of an international research consortium initiative, we used the largest data set of intelligence (IQ) measurements in patients with 22q11DS reported to date to investigate longitudinal IQ trajectories and the risk of subsequent psychotic illness. A total of 829 patients with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, recruited through 12 international clinical research sites, were included. Both psychiatric assessments and longitudinal IQ measurements were available for a subset of 411 patients (388 with ≥1 assessment at age 8-24 years). Diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, initial IQ, longitudinal IQ trajectory, and timing of the last psychiatric assessment with respect to the last IQ test. Among 411 patients with 22q11DS, 55 (13.4%) were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder. The mean (SD) age at the most recent psychiatric assessment was 16.1 (6.2) years. The mean (SD) full-scale IQ at first cognitive assessment was lower in patients who developed a psychotic disorder (65.5 [12.0]) compared with those without a psychotic disorder (74.0 [14.0]). On average, children with 22q11DS showed a mild decline in IQ (full-scale IQ, 7.04 points) with increasing age, particularly in the domain of verbal IQ (9.02 points). In those who developed psychotic illness, this decline was significantly steeper (P < .001). Those with a negative deviation from the average cognitive trajectory observed in 22q11DS were at significantly increased risk for the development of a psychotic disorder (odds ratio = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.24-5.00; P = .01). The divergence of verbal IQ trajectories between those who subsequently developed a psychotic disorder and those who did not was distinguishable from age 11 years onward. In 22q11DS, early cognitive decline is a robust indicator of the risk of developing a psychotic illness. These findings mirror those observed in idiopathic schizophrenia. The results provide further support for investigations of 22q11DS as a genetic model for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of psychosis.JAMA Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2671 · 12.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present with congenital heart disease (CHD) and high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive deficits. Although CHD has been implicated in neurodevelopment, its role in the neuropsychiatric outcome in 22q11DS is poorly understood. We investigated whether CHD contributes to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive impairments in 22q11DS. Fifty-four children ages 8-14 years with 22q11DS and 16 age-matched non-deleted children with CHD participated. They were assessed using semi-structured interviews and a Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. CHD status was assessed using available medical records. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cognitive profiles were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the 22q11DS with and without CHD. In 22q11DS with CHD, the prevalence rates were 41% anxiety disorders, 37% ADHD and 71% psychosis spectrum. In 22q11DS without CHD, the rates were 33% anxiety disorders, 41% ADHD and 64% psychosis spectrum. In comparison, the non-deleted CHD group had lower rates of psychopathology (25% anxiety disorders, 6% ADHD, and 13% psychosis spectrum). Similarly, the 22q11DS groups, regardless of CHD status, had significantly greater neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains, compared to the CHD-only group. We conclude that CHD in this sample of children with 22q11.2DS does not have a major impact on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and is not associated with increased neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest that the 22q11.2 deletion status itself may confer significant neuropsychiatric vulnerability in this population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 03/2014; 165(2). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32215 · 3.27 Impact Factor