The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 has been implicated in developmental Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, providing sufficient SCs for radial sorting of axons preceding SC differentiation in the peripheral nervous system. We generated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42-CKO) mice and confirmed aberrant axon sorting in Cdc42-CKO nerves. In adult Cdc42-CKO nerves, blood vessels were enlarged, and mature Remak bundles containing small axons were absent. Abnormal infoldings and outfoldings of myelin sheaths developed in Cdc42-CKO nerves, mimicking pathological features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The NF2/merlin tumor suppressor has been implicated up- and down-stream of Cdc42. In Cdc42-CKO;NF2-del double mutant mice, radial sorting defects seen in Cdc42-CKO nerves were rescued, while changes in myelin sheaths in Cdc42-CKO nerves were not. Phosphorylation of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and P-GSK3β, as well as expression of β-catenin were decreased in Cdc42-CKO nerves, and these changes were rescued by NF2/merlin mutation in Cdc42-CKO;NF2-del double mutant mice. Thus, Cdc42 regulates SC radial sorting in vivo through NF2/merlin dependent signaling pathways, while Cdc42 modulation of myelin sheath folding is NF2/merlin independent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding inverted formin FH2 and WH2 domain containing protein (INF2), a Cdc42 effector involved in the regulation of actin dynamics, cause focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy combined with FSGS (FSGS-CMT). Here, we report on six patients from four families with sensorimotor polyneuropathy and FSGS. Nerve conduction velocities were moderately slowed and amplitudes of sensory and motor potentials were decreased. One patient had internal hydrocephalus and was intellectually disabled. Molecular genetic testing revealed two known and two novel missense mutations in the second and fourth exon of the INF2 gene. Investigations of one nerve biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of intermediate type CMT and revealed occasional abnormal in- and outfoldings of myelin sheaths and expansions of the endoplasmic reticulum in axons and Schwann cells. While earlier reports suggested that mutations causing FSGS-CMT are restricted to exons 2 and 3 of the INF2 gene, we found one CMT-FSGS causing mutation (p.Glu184Lys) in exon 4 extending the critical region of INF2 for rapid CMT-FSGS molecular genetic diagnosis. Study of a nerve biopsy showed abnormalities that might be related to the known role of the INF2 binding partner CDC42 in myelination.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 02/2015; 20(1). DOI:10.1111/jns.12106 · 2.76 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.