We examined the association of nitrate-nitrogen exposure from rural private drinking water and incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (53916 improvement plan code) completed a questionnaire and had an ocular examination including standardized, graded fundus photographs at five examinations. Only information from rural residents in that study are included in this report. Data from an environmental monitoring study with probabilistic-based agro-chemical sampling, including nitrate-nitrogen, of rural private drinking water were available. Incidence of early AMD was associated with elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in rural private drinking water supply (10.0% for low, 19.2% for medium, and 26.1% for high nitrate-nitrogen level in the right eye). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.78) for medium and 2.88 (95% CI: 1.59-5.23) for high nitrate-nitrogen level. Incidence of late AMD was increased for those with medium or high levels of nitrate-nitrogen compared to low levels (2.3% for low and 5.1% for the medium or high nitrate-nitrogen level, for the right eye). The OR for medium or high nitrate-nitrogen groups was 2.80 (95% CI: 1.07-7.31) compared to the low nitrate-nitrogen group.
"In densely populated and fast-developing countries like China, clean water is a challenging issue in prospective politics and environmental planning (Bergmann et al., 2012). Some studies have chemically analyzed isolated pollutants in drinking water (Zhu et al., 2014; Klein et al., 2013; Post et al., 2013). Organisms (including humans) are exposed not only to isolated pollutants but also to complex chemical mixtures, the individual components of which might be present at concentrations too low to raise concern. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Degradation of water quality is an emerging problem in many developing countries. Bioassay is an effective approach to monitor quality of water in aquatic environments. Studies have used luminescent bacteria and zebrafish embryos as bioassay tools in monitoring river water quality. In this study, luminous bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67) assay and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity test were performed to assess the ecotoxicity of surface water from the Huangpu River, China, collected during 2012–2013. River water samples inhibited the luminescence [inhibition rates 0–34.6% (±4.82%)] of Q67 and increased the lethal rates and induced morphological abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. The toxicity to luminous bacteria and zebrafish embryos were higher in winter than in summer months. In addition, samples collected in industrial area, urban sampling sites near drainage outlets, and at the intersection of the tributary that flows into the Huangpu River showed higher toxicity.
"-is the most common pollutant in groundwater    . High NO 3 -levels in groundwater may originate from a number of sources, including leaking septic tanks, animal wastes, and overuse of nitrogen fertilizers  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrate is harmful to humans as it can form endogenous nitrosamines which can cause cancer. The major contribution of nitrate contamination in well water is largely from agricultural activities (e.g.; fertilizers and pesticide), wastewater treatment plant discharge, animal yard and manure storage lagoons. Biomarkers such as urine and saliva can be used to determine the occurrence and formation of nitrosamines in the human body. This paper provides an overview of nitrate occurrence in groundwater and the mechanism of nitrosamines formation and its excretion from human body via urine and saliva. The suitability of urine and saliva as biomarkers of endogenous nitrosamines formation were also discussed in this review.
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