Sport-Specific Injury Pattern Recorded During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are more commonly seen with certain cutting and pivoting sports. However, injury patterns associated with these sports have not been well described. PURPOSE:(1) To describe the patient demographics and injury pattern at the time of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) by activities that lead to ACL injuries and (2) to estimate the association of activities at the time of injury with the odds of isolated ACL injuries as well as with meniscus, cartilage, and multiligament injuries diagnosed at the time of ACLR. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:This study combined 2 ACLR registry cohorts, from Norway and the United States, from 2004 to 2011. A cohort of 10,958 primary ACLRs was included. The most prevalent sports activities at the time of injury were the following: soccer, skiing, American football, basketball, and team handball. The end points were the concurrent injury patterns at the time of ACLR: isolated ACL, meniscus, cartilage, and multiligament injuries. RESULTS:All sports were compared with the most prevalent injury mechanism: soccer. Skiing injuries were 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27) times more likely to result in isolated ACL tears, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.01-4.16) times more likely to result in posterior cruciate ligament tears, 1.94 (95% CI, 1.51-2.49) times more likely to result in medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears, and 1.73 (95% CI, 1.38-2.17) times more likely to result in multiligament injuries. Athletes playing American football were 2.72 (95% CI, 1.32-5.62) times more likely to have MCL tears. Those injured playing basketball were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.06-1.54) times more likely to have lateral meniscus tears, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.01-1.51) times more likely to have cartilage damage, and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.11-1.72) times more likely to have meniscus and cartilage injuries. Athletes injured playing team handball were less likely to have MCL tears (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99) and more likely to have lateral meniscus injuries (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48). CONCLUSION:Injury patterns were associated with certain sports. Compared with soccer, American football has a higher likelihood of resulting in multiligament injuries, whereas basketball has a higher likelihood of resulting in cartilage and lateral meniscus injuries. Injury patterns seen at the time of surgery may reflect the forces applied to the knee by the specific sports performed.
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ABSTRACT: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC and RTD (per kg body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes, and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. H/Q MVC and RTD strength ratios were also compared RESULTS: The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD deficits compared to the contralateral limb for MVC and late-phase RTD (P<0.05). Uninjured male skiers also displayed a limb difference for HAM MVC and RTD at 150 ms (P<0.05). QUAD MVC and RTD deficits were observed in the affected limb of ACL-R skiers, which led to an inflated H/Q Ratio (50 ms) compared to uninjured controls (P<0.05).Compared to male skiers, females displayed greater relative HAM RTD (50 ms) and elevated H/Q RTD Ratios (50 ms) suggesting enhanced ACL protection (P<0.05). Due to the strength demands of ski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD strength assessments in the physical evaluation of uninjured skiers. Further, HAM and QUAD strength should be assessed over a long-term period following surgery to identify chronic strength deficits in ACL-R ski racers.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 05/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000375 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Revision surgery is one of the most important endpoints during follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 10/2014; 43(1). DOI:10.1177/0363546514552788 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pattern of lateral meniscus tears observed in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured subjects varies greatly and determines subsequent management. Certain tear patterns with major biomechanical consequences should be repaired in a timely manner. Knowledge about risk factors for such tears may help to identify patients in the early posttraumatic phase and subsequently may improve clinical results. A database of 268 patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction was used to identify all patients with isolated ACL tears and patients with an associated tear of the lateral meniscus. Patients who underwent surgery >6 months after the injury were excluded. Based on the arthroscopic appearance of the lateral meniscus, patients were assorted to one of three groups: ‘no tear,’ ‘minor tear,’ and ‘major tear.’ Tear patterns defined as major included root tears, complete radial tears, and unstable longitudinal tears including bucket-handle tears. Univariate analysis was performed by comparing the three groups with regard to gender, age, height, weight, BMI, type of injury (high-impact sport, low-impact sport, and not sports related), and mechanism of injury (non-contact vs. contact). Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to identify independent risk factors for minor and major meniscal tears and to calculate odds ratios (OR). Two hundred fifteen patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 56% had isolated ACL tears, 27% had associated minor tears, and 17% had associated major tears of the lateral meniscus. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the three groups for gender (p = 0.002), age groups (p = 0.026), and mechanism of injury (p < 0.001). A contact injury mechanism was a risk factor for minor tears (OR: 4.28) and major tears (OR: 18.49). Additional risk factors for major tears were male gender (OR: 7.38) and age <30 years (OR: 5.85). Male patients, patients <30 years, and particularly patients who sustained a contact injury have a high risk for an associated major lateral meniscus tear. Special attention is therefore necessary in those patients and early referral to magnetic resonance imaging and/or arthroscopy is recommended to allow meniscus repair in a timely manner.Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 03/2015; 10(1):34. DOI:10.1186/s13018-015-0184-x · 1.58 Impact Factor