Current Status and Future Perspectives on Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

Department of Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan.
The Korean journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2013; 46(4):241-248. DOI: 10.5090/kjtcs.2013.46.4.241
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Esophageal cancer has one of the highest malignant potentials of any type of tumor. The 3-field lymph node dissection is the standard procedure in Japan for surgically curable esophageal cancer in the middle or upper thoracic esophagus. Minimally invasive esophagectomy is being increasingly performed in many countries, and several studies report its feasibility and curability; further, the magnifying effect of the thoracoscope is another distinct advantage. However, few studies have reported that minimally invasive esophagectomy is more beneficial than open esophagectomy. A recent meta-analysis revealed that minimally invasive esophagectomy reduces blood loss, respiratory complications, the total morbidity rate, and hospitalization duration. A randomized study reported that the pulmonary infection rate, pain score, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization duration, and postoperative 6-week quality of life were significantly better with the minimally invasive procedure than with other procedures. In the future, sentinel lymph node mapping might play a significant role by obtaining individualized information to customize the surgical procedure for individual patients' specific needs.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is one of the most invasive operative procedures. Surgical stress induces the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and overproduction induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which may lead to acute lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In addition, surgical stress may cause immunosuppression, which may affect not only perioperative mortality but also long-term survival. Methods Between 2006 and 2013, levels of perioperative serum cytokines were evaluated in 90 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. The serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We reviewed and assessed medical records, including cytokine profiles, and determined the factors affecting postoperative serum cytokine levels. Results These cytokine levels peaked on postoperative day 1 and decreased gradually. Of the clinicopathologic factors, a thoracoscopic approach was a significant factor in attenuating IL-6 and IL-8 levels on postoperative day 1 in multivariate analysis, and a longer operative time was a significant factor in increasing these levels. During postoperative days 3–7, the thoracoscopic approach and early enteral nutrition were significant factors in attenuating serum cytokine changes in multivariate analysis, and postoperative infectious complications were significant factors in increasing these levels. Conclusions The thoracoscopic approach and early enteral nutrition could attenuate the cytokine change after esophagectomy, and a longer operative time and postoperative infectious complication could increase it. We should undertake strategies to minimize the surgical stress to reduce potential short-term and long-term consequences for patients.
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