Comparison of Automated Red Cell Exchange Transfusion and Simple Transfusion for the Treatment of Children With Sickle Cell Disease Acute Chest Syndrome

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Arkansas Children's Hospital and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.39). 08/2013; 60(12). DOI: 10.1002/pbc.24744
Source: PubMed


Both simple transfusion (ST) of packed red blood cells and automated red cell exchange (RCE) are used in the treatment of acute chest syndrome (ACS). We report our experience using each of these modalities for the treatment of ACS.
Retrospective chart review of patients with ACS treated with ST only (51 episodes, ST group) or RCE performed either at diagnosis (U-RCE group, 15 episodes) or after ST (ST + RCE group, 15 episodes).
The mean clinical respiratory score (CRS) at diagnosis was significantly higher in the U-RCE group than in the ST group, but there were no significant differences among the other groups. The CRS and WBC each decreased significantly after simple transfusion in the ST group and after RCE in the U-RCE group, but both the CRS and WBC increased significantly, and the mean platelet count fell significantly, after simple transfusion in the ST + RCE group. Only patients in the ST + RCE group required mechanical ventilation. There were no significant differences in length of stay (LOS) or total hospital charges among any of the groups, probably due to the small sample size.
We conclude that the CRS identifies the patients who are most severely affected with ACS, and that upfront RCE is a safe and effective treatment for these patients. Additional work is needed to develop a method to predict which of the apparently less severely affected patients will fail to improve after simple transfusion and should receive upfront RCE. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    ABSTRACT: Background This study aims to compare in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the technical performance and packed red blood cell unit consumption between the automated depletion/Red Blood Cell exchange (RBCx) program (Spectra Optia Apheresis System) with the isovolemic hemodilution (IHD)/RBCx procedure (COBE Spectra Apheresis System) in a routine clinical setting.Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 23 patients treated between October 2010 and August 2013 who underwent repeated RBCx on both apheresis systems for preventive indications. Each patient was their own control and had undergone two procedures on each system, totaling 46 sessions per group. On Spectra Optia, we performed the automated depletion/RBCx program. For COBE Spectra, we used a modified IHD/RBCx protocol. All patients had an initial 250 mL depletion offset by a 5% albumin prior to the exchange procedure, for the respective device, with leucodepleted Rh/Kell compatible and cross-matched RBC packs.ResultsAll procedures were well tolerated except three mild febrile nonhemolytic reactions. Postprocedure hemoglobin S (HbS), fraction of cells remaining (FCR), procedure duration and processed blood and anticoagulant volumes were comparable in the two groups. However, the RBCx volume was significantly higher for the Spectra Optia group (+71 mL, P = 0.01), with no significant difference in the number of RBC units used.Conclusions Technical performance and packed RBC unit consumption were not compromised when switching from the COBE Spectra IHD/RBCx protocol to the depletion/RBCx protocol on the Spectra Optia. Tolerability was equal for both protocols. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Clinical Apheresis 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jca.21422 · 1.79 Impact Factor