Article

Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly.

Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Science (IMBA), Vienna 1030, Austria.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 08/2013; DOI: 10.1038/nature12517
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The complexity of the human brain has made it difficult to study many brain disorders in model organisms, highlighting the need for an in vitro model of human brain development. Here we have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions. These include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes. Furthermore, cerebral organoids are shown to recapitulate features of human cortical development, namely characteristic progenitor zone organization with abundant outer radial glial stem cells. Finally, we use RNA interference and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells to model microcephaly, a disorder that has been difficult to recapitulate in mice. We demonstrate premature neuronal differentiation in patient organoids, a defect that could help to explain the disease phenotype. Together, these data show that three-dimensional organoids can recapitulate development and disease even in this most complex human tissue.

3 Bookmarks
 · 
374 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into mature cells, tissues and organs holds major promise for the development of novel approaches in regenerative medicine, and provides a unique tool for disease modeling and drug discovery. Sometimes underappreciated is the fact that directed differentiation of hPSCs also provides a unique model for human development, with a number of important advantages over model organisms. Here, I discuss the importance of using human stem cell models for understanding human lung development and disease. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
    Development 01/2015; 142(1):13-6. · 6.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) represent an unlimited source for the treatment of various neurological disorders. NPCs are usually derived from PSCs through the formation of embryoid body (EB), an aggregate structure mimicking embryonic development. This study investigated the effect of labeling multicellular EB-NPC aggregates with micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) for cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    Cytotherapy 01/2015; · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Living matter equals water, to a first approximation, and water transport across barriers such as membranes and epithelia is vital. Water serves two competing functions. On the one hand, it is the fundamental solvent enabling random mobility of solutes and therefore biochemical reactions and intracellular signal propagation. Homeostasis of the intracellular water volume is required such that messenger concentration encodes the stimulus and not inverse volume fluctuations. On the other hand, water flow is needed for transport of solutes to and away from cells in a directed manner, threatening volume homeostasis and signal transduction fidelity of cells. Feedback regulation of fluid transport reconciles these competing objectives. The regulatory mechanisms often span across multiple spatial scales from cellular interactions up to the architecture of organs. Open questions relate to the dependency of water fluxes and steady state volumes on control parameters and stimuli. We here review selected mathematical models of feedback regulation of fluid transport at the cell scale and identify a general "core-shell" structure of such models. We propose that fluid transport models at other spatial scales can be constructed in a generalised core-shell framework, in which the core accounts for the biophysical effects of fluid transport whilst the shell reflects the regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework for tissue lumen growth and suggest future experiments in zebrafish to test lumen size regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Bio Systems 02/2015; 130. · 1.27 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
84 Downloads
Available from
Sep 9, 2014
Available from