Article

Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae

Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea.
International journal of biological macromolecules (Impact Factor: 2.37). 08/2013; 62. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.08.036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers towards natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

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    ABSTRACT: Natural polysaccharides from different sources have long been studied and widely used in different areas, such as food and feed, medicine and pharmaceutics, and in papermaking. In recent decades, there has been an increased interest in the utilization of polysaccharides, particularly bioactive ones, for various novel applications owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and some specific therapeutic activities. The main goal of this paper was to review the sources, natively biological activities, isolation, characterization, and the structural features of natively bioactive polysaccharides. Moreover, the article has also been forcused on the chemical/chemo-enzymatic functionalizations that may create novel opportunities to maximally exploit the various valuable properties of polysaccharides, particularly from wood species, in previously unperceived applications especially for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. This article was to review novel strategies to tailor functional materials with above mentioned application potentials for the polysaccharides from wood species.
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    ABSTRACT: All members of the sulfotransferase (SOT, EC 2.8.2.-) protein family transfer a sulfuryl group from the donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an appropriate hydroxyl group of several classes of substrates. The primary structure of these enzymes is characterized by a histidine residue in the active site, defined PAPS binding sites and a longer SOT domain. Proteins with this SOT domain occur in all organisms from all three domains, usually as a multi-protein family. Arabidopsis thaliana SOTs, the best characterized SOT multi-protein family, contains 21 members. The substrates for several plant enzymes have already been identified, such as glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, flavonoids, and salicylic acid. Much information has been gathered on desulfo-glucosinolate (dsGl) SOTs in A. thaliana. The three cytosolic dsGl SOTs show slightly different expression patterns. The recombinant proteins reveal differences in their affinity to indolic and aliphatic dsGls. Also the respective recombinant dsGl SOTs from different A. thaliana ecotypes differ in their kinetic properties. However, determinants of substrate specificity and the exact reaction mechanism still need to be clarified. Probably, the three-dimensional structures of more plant proteins need to be solved to analyze the mode of action and the responsible amino acids for substrate binding. In addition to A. thaliana, more plant species from several families need to be investigated to fully elucidate the diversity of sulfated molecules and the way of biosynthesis catalyzed by SOT enzymes.
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