Índice glicémico y carga glucémica de las dietas de adultos diabéticos y no diabéticos

Anales Venezolanos de Nutricion 08/2013; 26(1):5-13.

ABSTRACT El Índice Glicémico (IG) y la Carga Glucémica (CG) son indicadores válidos del efecto de los alimentos en la respuesta de la glucosa plasmática. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el IG y CG de las dietas consumidas por adultos diabéticos y no diabéticos, como indicadores de la calidad de la dieta y su relación con el estado nutricional. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la consulta de Endocrinología del Hospital Militar “Dr. Carlos Arvelo” durante el período julio 2010 – enero 2011. Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, con un grupo de estudio de 43 sujetos adultos, 23 diabéticos (D) y 20 no diabéticos (ND). Se aplicó una evaluación nutricional antropométrica y se determinó el IG y CG de la dieta. Para la comparación entre las medias de los grupos se realizó la prueba de “t” de Student y para las distribuciones entre los grupo se utilizó Chi2. Se encontró un predominio de IG medio y alto (70% en ND y 88% en D), CG moderada y alta (75% en ND y 78% en D) y malnutrición por exceso (55% en ND y 70% en D) en ambos grupos. Se concluye que IG y CG son indicadores alternativos y válidos de la calidad de la dieta y puede considerarse su utilidad en la evaluación y manejo dietoterapéutico de los diabéticos y en programas de prevención de enfermedades crónicas, dirigidos a la población en general, sin hacer uso aislado ni desconocer sus limitaciones.

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Available from: Pablo Ignacio Hernandez Rivas, Sep 28, 2015
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  • Revista de Nutrição 01/2007; 20(6). DOI:10.1590/S1415-52732007000600004
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether immediate dietary effects on blood glucose influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine whether the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study is a prospective cohort study of 3075 adults who were 70-79 y old at baseline (n=1898 for this analysis). The intakes of specific nutrients and food groups and the risk of type 2 diabetes over a 4-y period were examined according to dietary GI and GL. Dietary GI was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, alcohol, vegetables, and fruit. Dietary GL was positively associated with dietary carbohydrate, fruit, and fiber and negatively associated with the intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, and alcohol. Persons in the higher quintiles of dietary GI or GL did not have a significantly greater incidence of type 2 diabetes. These findings do not support a relation between dietary GI or GL and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Because dietary GI and GL show strong nutritional correlates, the overall dietary pattern should be considered.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2008; 87(1):126-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary glycemic index or load is thought to play an important role in glucose metabolism. However, few studies have investigated the relation between glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and glycemia in Asian populations. In this cross-sectional analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Saku Control Obesity Program, we examined the relation between the baseline GI or GL and glycemia (HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] levels), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-β), and other metabolic risk factors (lipid levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and adiposity measures). The participants were 227 obese Japanese women and men. We used multiple linear regression models and logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, visceral fat area, total energy intake, and physical activity levels. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, GI was not associated with HbA1c, but GL was positively associated with HbA1c. For increasing quartiles of GI, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.3%, 6.7%, 6.4%, and 6.4% (P for trend = 0.991). For increasing quartiles of GL, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.2%, 6.2%, 6.6%, and 6.5% (P for trend = 0.044). In addition, among participants with HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 20 out of 28 (71%) had a high GL (≥ median); the adjusted odds ratio for HbA1c ≥ 7.0% among participants with higher GL was 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 8.1) compared to the participants with a lower GL (<median). Further, among 16 participants with FPG ≥ 150 mg/dL, 13 participants (81.3%) had a higher GL; the adjusted odds ratio for FPG ≥ 150 mg/dL among participants with a higher GL was 8.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.7 to 43.4) compared to those with a lower GL. In contrast, GI and GL were not associated with metabolic risk factors other than glycemia. Our findings suggest that participants with poor glycemic control tend to have a higher GL in an obese Japanese population.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 09/2012; 9(1):79. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-9-79
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Pablo Ignacio Hernandez Rivas added an answer in Sport Nutrition:
    Do anyone know a reference about the women usually under-reported when answer dietary records?

    Some time ago I read in a sport paper (probably Volek JS, but I do not remember) which said that women habitually under-reported when answer different dietary records.

    I work with female athletes and always when I calculate their nutritional intake, with 7- days records or validated food frequency questionnaire, see low energy intake and macronutrients, specially carbohydrates.

    I think a possible justification, they do not write every food which eat.

    Pablo Ignacio Hernandez Rivas

    You are not alone! In our experience, is very commonly found diets low in carbs and low in calories. But very high in proteins. In women and men with R-24h.

    Culturally, in our population the carbs are bad, more if the person have diabetes. So, we need more investigation in this topic.

    Regards from Venezuela!

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      ABSTRACT: Objective: To validate a nutritional assessment methodology to detect cardiovascular disease predisposing factors. Methods: It was applied a nutritional assessment, including the anthropometric indicators, and quantitative and qualitative measurement of food consumption. 50 volunteers, among 18 and 75 years, patient of the Endocrinology department database of the Hospital Militar "Dr. Carlos Arvelo" were evaluated. Results: According to anthropometric indicators, 66% of the patients show a BMI>25; 80% of them was above the reference values for waist circumference; 78% have a abdominal obesity for waist-hip ratio, and 60% with a body fat percentage higher to those normal values. When evaluating the food consumption, it was found: low-calorie diet (76%), high protein (52%), and high fat with a predominance of animal fat consumption (44%), hipoglucidic (80%) and low in dietary fiber (68%), all of these data is in according to reference values for the INN. These results are allowing the identification of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometrical and diet. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the nutritional status through anthropometric and dietary indicators can be a useful tool in identifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is imperative that the measurement and evaluation of the indicators should be performed in a larger sample of subjects in order to verify the consistency of the results
      Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension 01/2011; 6(1):8-13.

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