Does This Patient Have Obstructive Sleep Apnea? The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 08/2013; 310(7):731-41. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.276185
Source: PubMed


IMPORTANCE Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disease, responsible for daytime sleepiness. Prior to referring patients for definitive testing, the likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea should be established in the clinical examination. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the clinical examination accuracy in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and reference lists from articles were searched from 1966 to June 2013. Titles and abstracts (n = 4449) were reviewed for eligibility and appraised for evidence levels. STUDY SELECTION For inclusion, studies must have used full, attended nocturnal polysomnography for the reference standard (n = 42). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Community and referral-based prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea; accuracy of symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS The prevalence of sleep apnea in community-screened patients is 2% to 14% (sample sizes 360-1741) and 21% to 90% (sample sizes 42-2677) for patients referred for sleep evaluation. The prevalence varies based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) threshold used for the evaluation (≥5 events/h, prevalence 14%; ≥15/h, prevalence 6%) and whether the disease definition requires symptoms in addition to an abnormal AHI (≥5/h with symptoms, prevalence 2%-4%). Among patients referred for sleep evaluation, those with sleep apnea weighed more (summary body mass index, 31.4; 95% CI, 30.5-32.2) than those without sleep apnea (summary BMI, 28.3; 95% CI, 27.6-29.0; P < .001 for the comparison). The most useful observation for identifying patients with obstructive sleep apnea was nocturnal choking or gasping (summary likelihood ratio [LR], 3.3; 95% CI, 2.1-4.6) when the diagnosis was established by AHI ≥10/h). Snoring is common in sleep apnea patients but is not useful for establishing the diagnosis (summary LR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). Patients with mild snoring and body mass index lower than 26 are unlikely to have moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (LR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.19 at threshold of AHI ≥15/h). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Nocturnal gasping or choking is the most reliable indicator of obstructive sleep apnea, whereas snoring is not very specific. The clinical examination of patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea is useful for selecting patients for more definitive testing.

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    • "OSA is increasingly recognized as an intricate manifestation of several systemic disorders, creating a disease that directly threatens the basic life processes of breathing and sleep [1]. OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing expiratory dyspnea, intermittent oxygen desaturation, systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure surges, and sleep disruption [2]. Long-term chronic intermittent hypoxia, hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation causes and aggravates cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases [1], [3], [4], metabolic syndrome [5], diabetes [6], resistant hypertension [7], and cognitive disorders [8]; and reduces the quality-of-life [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107380. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107380 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telemedicine seems to offer reliable solutions to health care challenges, but significant contradictory results were recently found. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully select outcomes and target patients who may take advantage of this technology. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy compliance is essential to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We believe that OSA patients could benefit greatly from a telemedicine approach for CPAP therapy management. The objective of our study was to evaluate the application of a telemedicine-based approach in the CPAP therapy management, focusing on patients' CPAP follow-up and training. We performed two studies. First, (study 1) we enrolled 50 consecutive OSA patients who came to our sleep center for the CPAP follow-up visit. Patients performed a teleconsultation with a physician, and once finalized, they were asked to answer anonymously to a questionnaire regarding their opinion about the teleconsultation. In a second randomized controlled trial (RCT) (study 2), we included 40 OSA patients scheduled for CPAP training. There were 20 that received the usual face-to-face training and 20 that received the training via videoconference. After the session, they were blindly evaluated on what they learned about OSA and mask placement. More than 95% (49/50) of the interviewed patients were satisfied with the teleconsultation, and 66% (33/50) of them answered that the teleconsultation could replace 50%-100% of their CPAP follow-up visits. Regarding the RCT, patients who received the CPAP training via videoconference demonstrated the same knowledge about OSA and CPAP therapy as the face-to-face group (mean 93.6% of correct answers vs mean 92.1%; P=.935). Performance on practical skills (mask and headgear placement, leaks avoidance) was also similar between the two groups. OSA patients gave a positive feedback about the use of teleconsultation for CPAP follow-up, and the CPAP training based on a telemedicine approach proved to be as effective as face-to-face training. These results support the use of this telemedicine-based approach as a valuable strategy for patients' CPAP training and clinical follow-up.
    02/2014; 3(1):e6. DOI:10.2196/ijmr.3060
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