Site-specific N-terminal labeling of proteins using sortase-mediated reactions.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Nature Protocol (Impact Factor: 8.36). 09/2013; 8(9):1800-7. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2013.102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This protocol describes the use of sortase-mediated reactions to label the N terminus of any given protein of interest. The sortase recognition sequence, LPXTG (for Streptococcus aureus sortase A) or LPXTA (for Staphylococcus pyogenes sortase A), can be appended to a variety of probes such as fluorophores, biotin or even to other proteins. The protein to be labeled acts as a nucleophile by attacking the intermediate formed between the probe containing the LPXTG/A motif and the sortase enzyme. If sortase, the protein of interest and a suitably functionalized label are available, the reactions usually require less than 3 h.

Download full-text


Available from: Hidde L Ploegh, Dec 08, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Observation of molecular processes inside living cells is fundamental to a quantitative understanding of how biological systems function. Specifically, decoding the complex behavior of single molecules enables us to measure kinetics, transport, and self-assembly at this fundamental level that is often veiled in ensemble experiments. In the past decade, rapid developments in fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and fluorescent labeling techniques have enabled new experiments to investigate the robustness and stochasticity of diverse molecular mechanisms with high spatiotemporal resolution. This review discusses the concepts and strategies of structural and functional imaging in living cells at the single-molecule level with minimal perturbations to the specimen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular cell 05/2015; 58(4):644-659. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.02.033 · 14.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammasomes elicit host defense inside cells by activating caspase-1 for cytokine maturation and cell death. AIM2 and NLRP3 are representative sensor proteins in two major families of inflammasomes. The adaptor protein ASC bridges the sensor proteins and caspase-1 to form ternary inflammasome complexes, achieved through pyrin domain (PYD) interactions between sensors and ASC and through caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) interactions between ASC and caspase-1. We found that PYD and CARD both form filaments. Activated AIM2 and NLRP3 nucleate PYD filaments of ASC, which, in turn, cluster the CARD of ASC. ASC thus nucleates CARD filaments of caspase-1, leading to proximity-induced activation. Endogenous NLRP3 inflammasome is also filamentous. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of ASC(PYD) filament at near-atomic resolution provides a template for homo- and hetero-PYD/PYD associations, as confirmed by structure-guided mutagenesis. We propose that ASC-dependent inflammasomes in both families share a unified assembly mechanism that involves two successive steps of nucleation-induced polymerization. PAPERFLICK:
    Cell 03/2014; 156(6):1193-206. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.008 · 33.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chimeric proteins, including bispecific antibodies, are biological tools with therapeutic applications. Genetic fusion and ligation methods allow the creation of N-to-C and C-to-N fused recombinant proteins, but not unnaturally linked N-to-N and C-to-C fusion proteins. This protocol describes a simple procedure for the production of such chimeric proteins, starting from correctly folded proteins and readily available peptides. By equipping the N terminus or C terminus of the proteins of interest with a set of click handles using sortase A, followed by a strain-promoted click reaction, unnatural N-to-N and C-to-C linked (hetero) fusion proteins are established. Examples of proteins that have been conjugated via this method include interleukin-2, interferon-α, ubiquitin, antibodies and several single-domain antibodies. If the peptides, sortase A and the proteins of interest are in hand, the unnaturally N-to-N and C-to-C fused proteins can be obtained in 3-4 d.
    Nature Protocol 09/2013; 8(9):1808-19. DOI:10.1038/nprot.2013.103 · 8.36 Impact Factor