Agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the first-line standard of care for treating patients with hormone-sensitive advanced prostate cancer (PCa) for many decades. The agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), also called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, are still the most frequently used form of medical ADT. Areas covered: This article reviews the available data and most recent information concerning the use of LHRH agonists in advanced PCa. This article also reviews the discovery and development of LHRH agonists and summarizes the clinical evidence for their efficacy in PCa. Expert opinion: The introduction and application of agonists of LHRH has modernized and improved the treatment of advanced PCa. The life-saving benefits of LHRH agonists are well established, yet underestimated. Despite their efficacy, agonists of LHRH have several disadvantages or drawbacks including disease flare. The approach to ADT has been recently further refined with the development of the LHRH antagonist degarelix. Degarelix, a highly clinically effective third-generation LHRH antagonist, is currently available in most countries for therapy of advanced PCa. This new drug offers attractive alternatives to LHRH agonists for treatment of advanced PCa. A therapy for castration-resistant PCa based on a targeted cytotoxic analog of LHRH, AEZS-108, is also emerging.
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ABSTRACT: Advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer responds to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT); however, therapeutic options for recurrent castration-resistant disease are limited. Because growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) are regulated in an autocrine fashion in prostate cancer, inhibition of GHRH-R represents a compelling approach to treatment. We investigated the effects of the latest series of improved, highly potent GHRH antagonists-MIA-602, MIA-606, and MIA-690-on the growth of androgen-dependent as well as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells in vitro and in vivo. GHRH-R and its splice variant, SV1, were present in 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP human prostate cancer cell lines. Androgen-dependent LNCaP and VCaP cells expressed higher levels of GHRH-R protein compared with castration-resistant 22Rv1 cells; however, 22Rv1 expressed higher levels of SV1. In vitro, MIA-602 decreased cell proliferation of 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP prostate cancer cell lines by 70%, 61%, and 20%, respectively (all P < 0.05), indicating direct effects of MIA-602. In vivo, MIA-602 was more effective than MIA-606 and MIA-690 and decreased 22Rv1 xenograft tumor volumes in mice by 63% after 3 wk (P < 0.05). No noticeable untoward effects or changes in body weight occurred. In vitro, the VCaP cell line was minimally inhibited by MIA-602, but in vivo, this line showed a substantial reduction in growth of xenografts in response to MIA-602, indicating both direct and systemic inhibitory effects. MIA-602 also further inhibited VCaP xenografts when combined with ADT. This study demonstrates the preclinical efficacy of the GHRH antagonist MIA-602 for treatment of both androgen-dependent and CRPC.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Nobel Prize Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry, and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G. Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S. Hench, Bernardo A. Houssay, Edward C. Kendall, E. Theodor Kocher, John J.R. Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.Endocrine connections. 07/2014;