Dynamic Interaction Between Membrane-Bound Full-Length Cytochrome P450 and Cytochrome b5 Observed by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055.
Scientific Reports (Impact Factor: 5.08). 08/2013; 3:2538. DOI: 10.1038/srep02538
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microsomal monoxygenase enzymes of the cytochrome-P450 family are found in all biological kingdoms, and play a central role in the breakdown of metabolic as well as xenobiotic, toxic and 70% of the drugs in clinical use. Full-length cytochrome-b5 has been shown to be important for the catalytic activity of cytochrome-P450. Despite the significance in understanding the interactions between these two membrane-associated proteins, only limited high-resolution structural information on the full-length cytochrome-P450 and the cytochromes-b5-P450 complex is available. Here, we report a structural study on a functional ~72-kDa cytochromes-b5-P450 complex embedded in magnetically-aligned bicelles without having to freeze the sample. Functional and solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data reveal interactions between the proteins in fluid lamellar phase bilayers. In addition, our data infer that the backbone structure and geometry of the transmembrane domain of cytochrome-b5 is not significantly altered due to its interaction with cytochrome-P450, whereas the mobility of cytochrome-b5 is considerably reduced.


Available from: Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Mar 25, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cytochrome P450 (P450) is a membrane-bound monooxygenase whose catalytic activities require two electrons to be sequentially delivered from its redox partners: cytochrome b5 (cytb5) and cytochrome P450 reductase, both of which are membrane proteins. Though P450 functional activities are known to be affected by lipids, experimental evidence to reveal the effect of membrane on P450-cytb5 interactions is still lacking. Here, we present evidence for the influence of phospholipid bilayers on complex formation between rabbit P450 2B4 (CYP2B4) and rabbit cytb5 at the atomic-level utilizing NMR techniques. General line-broadening and modest chemical shift perturbations of cytb5 resonances characterize CYP2B4-cytb5 interactions on the intermediate time scale. More significant intensity attenuation and a more specific protein-protein binding interface are observed in bicelles as compared to lipid-free solution, highlighting the importance of the lipid bilayer in stabilizing stronger and more specific interactions between CYP2B4 and cytb5, which may lead to a more efficient electron transfer. Similar results observed for the interactions between CYP2B4 lacking the transmembrane domain (tr-CYP2B4) and cytb5 imply interactions between tr-CYP2B4 and the membrane surface, which might assist in CYP2B4-cytb5 complex formation by orienting tr-CYP2B4 for efficient contact with cytb5. Furthermore, the observation of weak and non-specific interactions between CYP2B4 and cytb5 in micelles suggests lipid bilayer structures and low curvature membrane surface being more preferable for CYP2B4-cytb5 complex formation. Results presented in this study provide structural insights into the mechanism behind the important role that the lipid bilayer plays in the interactions between P450s and their redox partners. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2015; 290(20). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.597096 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Defining the conformational states of cytochrome P450 active sites is critical for the design of agents that minimize drug-drug interactions, the development of isoform-specific P450 inhibitors, and the engineering of novel oxidative catalysts. We used two-dimensional 1H,15N-HSQC chemical shift perturbation mapping of 15N-labeled Phe residues and X-ray crystallography to examine the ligand-dependent conformational dynamics of CYP119. Active site Phe residues were most affected by the binding of azole inhibitors and fatty acid substrates, in agreement with active site localization of the conformational changes. This was supported by crystallography, which revealed movement of the F-G loop with various azoles. Nevertheless, the NMR chemical shift perturbations caused by azoles and substrates were distinguishable. The absence of significant chemical shift perturbations with several azoles revealed binding of ligands to an open conformation similar to that of the ligand-free state. In contrast, 4-phenylimidazole caused pronounced NMR changes involving Phe-87, Phe-144 and Phe-153 that support the closed conformation found in the crystal structure. The same closed conformation is observed by NMR and crystallography with a para-fluoro substituent on the 4-phenylimidazole, but a para-chloro or bromo substituent engendered a second closed conformation. An open conformation is thus favored in solution with many azole ligands, but para-substituted phenylimidazoles give rise to two closed conformations that depend on the size of the para-substituent. The results suggest that ligands selectively stabilize discrete cytochrome P450 conformational states. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2015; 290(16). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.627935 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combustion processes generate particulate matter (PM) that can affect human health. The presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions results in the formation of air-stable, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on entrained particles. Exposure to EPFRs has been shown to negatively influence pulmonary and cardiovascular functions. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins that are responsible for the metabolism of foreign compounds. Previously, it was shown that model EPFRs, generated by exposure of silica containing 5% copper oxide (CuO-Si) to either dicholorobenzene (DCB230) or 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230) at ≥ 230°C, inhibited six forms of P450 in rat liver microsomes (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2014) 277:200-209). In this study, the inhibition of P450 by MCP230 was examined in more detail by measuring its effect on the rate of metabolism of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (7EFC) and 7-benzyloxyresorufin (7BRF) by the purified, reconstituted CYP2B4 system. MCP230 inhibited the CYP2B4-mediated metabolism of 7EFC at least 10-fold more potently than non-EPFR controls (CuO-Si, silica, and silica generated from heating silica and MCP at 50°C, so that EPFRs were not formed (MCP50)). The inhibition by EPFRs was specific for the P450 and did not affect the ability of the redox partner, P450 reductase (CPR) from reducing cytochrome c. All of the PM inhibited CYP2B4-mediated metabolism noncompetitively with respect to substrate. When CYP2B4-mediated metabolism of 7EFC was measured as a function of the CPR concentration, the mechanism of inhibition was competitive. EPFRs likely inhibit CYP2B4-mediated substrate metabolism by physically disrupting the CPR·P450 complex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical pharmacology 03/2015; 95(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2015.03.012 · 4.65 Impact Factor