Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: A cross-sectional study

Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 08/2013; 12(1):123. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-123
Source: PubMed


There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age.
Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire.
A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption.
Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately.This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits and vegetables need to take into account gender and age differences in designing promotional strategies. Future research should identify evidence-based interventions to facilitate the achievement of the Italian guidelines for a healthy diet for fruit, vegetables and meals intake.

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Available from: Giacomo Lazzeri,
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    • "These findings suggest that provision of FV as snacks could potentially increase overall FV intake among children. While it may seem most impactful to simply promote general FV provision in the home, research has shown that among elementary school children, FV are most frequently consumed during weekday lunch and dinner and few FV are consumed as a snack, supporting recommendations for interventions to increase FV intake as snacks (Baranowski et al., 1997; Lazzeri et al., 2013). This study shows that when parents provide FV as snacks there may be higher consumption among older children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), P<0.05. Contributing to the growing collection of literature describing parent-child dyad dietary behaviors, these findings suggest promoting FV access and intake throughout the day, not only at meals, by including serving as snacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Eating Behaviors 02/2015; 17C. DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.01.006 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Lazzeri et al. (2013) showed significant relation between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective . To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods . Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results . Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion . This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.
    07/2014; 2014(1):432732. DOI:10.1155/2014/432732
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    • "This paper tests the hypothesis that fruit and vegetable intake has no relationship with ecological zone. Some prior studies (Kamphuis et al., 2006; Yen et al., 2011; Lazzeri et al., 2013; Tak et al., 2013; van Ansem et al., 2013) suggested that local availability (for example, access to one's own vegetable garden and high food security, accounted for by factors such as local climate, vegetation and soil quality) is an important factor in fruit and vegetable consumption. It must be stated, however, that by this assumption, it was not intended to follow a deterministic ideology. "
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    ABSTRACT: The disease burden in both developed and developing countries is moving towards higher proportions of chronic diseases, and diseases such as cancers are now considered to be of public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, healthy behaviours such as fruit and vegetable consumption are recommended to reduce the chances of onset of chronic diseases. This paper examines the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in Ghana with particular emphasis on consumption by ecological zone. Data were from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey ( n= 4916 females; n =4568 males). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using basic descriptive and Poisson regression. The main independent variable was ecological zone and the dependent variables were levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. The mean number of fruits and vegetables consumed in a week was higher among females (fruits: 7.5, 95% CI=7.3–7.7; vegetables: 8.1, 95% CI=7.8–8.3) than males (fruits: 6.2, 95% CI=6.0–6.4; vegetables: 7.9, 95% CI=7.7–8.2). There were significant differences in consumption by ecological zone. Respondents in the Savannah zone consumed less fruit than those in the Coastal and Forest zones, but the differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between the Coastal and Savannah zones were not consistent, especially for vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that one of the key interventions to improve fruit and vegetable consumption could lie in improving distribution systems since their consumption is significantly higher in the Forest zone, where the production of fruit and vegetables is more developed than in the Savannah and Coastal zones. The findings relating to household wealth challenge conventional knowledge on fruit and vegetable consumption, and rather argue for equal consideration of spatial differences in critical health outcomes.
    Journal of Biosocial Science 07/2014; 47(05):1-19. DOI:10.1017/S002193201400025X · 0.98 Impact Factor
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