Relationship Between Time of Day Physical Exercise and the Reduced Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Population
ABSTRACT Purpose: Exercise leads to a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether time of day physical exercise has effects on CAD is still unclear. The present study is to investigate the relationship between time of day physical exercise and angiography determined CAD in a Chinese population. Subjects: A total of 1129 consecutive participants who underwent coronary angiography for the first time were enrolled in our study. Participants were divided into Non-CAD group and CAD group according to the result of coronary angiography. We used a pre-designed questionnaire, the work-related activity, leisure-time activity, and physical exercise information were recorded in the form of self-reporting. Results: Doing physical exercise was associated with a reduced risk of CAD, after adjusting the established and potential confounders, with an adjusted OR of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.35-0.67) compared with those who did not any physical exercise. Moreover, the risk of CAD could linearly decrease with increase of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise. Further stratification analysis revealed that the protective effects of exercise were more significant in the afternoon and evening group than in the morning and forenoon group. The adjusted ORs of doing physical exercise in morning, forenoon, afternoon, and evening groups were 0.53 (0.36-0.78), 0.51(0.27-0.96), 0.46(0.25-0.85), 0.43(0.28-0.66), respectively, compared to non-exerciser (P<0.05). Conclusions: Doing physical exercise can decrease the risk of CAD, and exercising in the afternoon or evening may have more significant effects on the prevention of CAD than in other time of day.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of walking at different times of day on lipids and inflammatory markers in sedentary patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 330 patients recruited from Nanjing between September 2011 and November 2012 were randomly assigned to a control group (n=110), morning (n=110) or evening walking group (n=110). Both the walking groups were asked to walk 30min/day or more on at least 5days/week either in the morning or evening for 12weeks. Lipids and inflammatory markers were measured before and after exercise intervention. Compared with baseline, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were improved in all groups. Significances were shown in the changes of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, lipoprotein(a) between groups. The evening walking group had a larger decrease in fibrinogen (0.16±0.19g/L, P<0.001), hsCRP (1.16±1.07mg/L, P<0.001), WBC count (0.76±1.53 109/L, P=0.004) and LDL-C (0.34±0.31mmol/L, P<0.001) than the other two groups. Our walking program successfully resulted in a favorable change in lipids and inflammatory markers. Patients in the evening walking group gained more benefits than those walking in the morning.Preventive Medicine 11/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.10.020