Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) commonly complicates chronic liver disease and increases in incidence have been reported despite falling prevalences of viral hepatitis.
Following the introduction of centralised specialist teams to manage patients with cancer in England, we characterised the demographics of patients with HCC referred to the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust between 2000 and 2010. Regional HCC mortality data was from Public Health England.
HCC related mortality in the region rose 1.8 fold in 10 years, from 2.0 to 3.7 per 100,000. 632 cases were reviewed centrally, with 2-3 fold increases in referrals of patients with associated hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease or no chronic liver disease and a >10 fold increase in HCC associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). By 2010 NAFLD accounted for 41/118 (34.8%) cases. Irrespective of associated etiologies, metabolic risk factors were present in 78/118 (66.1%) cases in 2010, associated with regional increases in obesity and diabetes. Median overall survival was just 10.7 months. Although patients with NAFLD associated HCC were older (71.3yrs versus 67.1yrs; p<0.001) and their cancers less often detected by surveillance, their survival was similar to other etiologies. This was attributed to significantly higher incidental presentation (38.2%) and lower prevalence of cirrhosis (77.2%).
HCC related mortality is increasing, with typical patients being elderly with metabolic risk factors. The prognosis for most is poor, but older patients with co-morbidities can do well managed within a specialist multidisciplinary team if their cancer is detected pre-symptomatically.
"To the Editor: The cross sectional studies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Newcastle-upon-Tyne area may need further clarifications by the authors . First, how can HCC-related mortality in this region have risen 1.8 fold in 10 years, from 2.0 to 3.7 per 100.000. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the consequences of the current obesity epidemic. NAFLD is a major form of chronic liver disease that is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adults and children. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the severe form of NAFLD, and uncontrolled inflammation as displayed in NASH has been identified as one of the key events in enhancing hepatic carcinogenesis. Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid and the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato and tomato products, as well as some fruits and vegetables. Lycopene's innate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have generated research interests on its capacity to protect against human diseases that are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, differential mechanisms of lycopene metabolism including endogenous cleavage by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (BCOs), generate lycopene metabolites that may also have significant impact on human disease development. However, it remains to be elucidated as to whether lycopene or its metabolites apolycopenoids have protective effects against obesity-related complications including inflammation and tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the in vivo experiments that elucidated molecular mechanisms associated with obesity-related hepatic inflammation and carcinogenesis. This review also provides an overview of lycopene metabolism, and the molecular pathways involved in the potential beneficial properties of lycopene and apolycopenoids. More research is clearly needed to fully unravel the importance of BCOs in tomato carotenoid metabolism and the consequence on human health and diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse and obesity are two known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that also synergistically promote HBV/HCV-related carcinogenesis. TLR4, the receptor for endotoxin, participates in inflammatory processes such as M1 activation of hepatic macrophages in alcoholic liver disease. However, its role in liver carcinogenesis via ectopic expression and activation has only recently been revealed in alcohol/HCV-associated HCC models. Alcohol feeding to mice expressing the HCV Ns5a in a hepatocyte specific manner aggravates liver inflammation via activation of overexpressed TLR4 in the parenchymal cells. Long-term alcohol feeding produces liver tumors in these transgenic mice in a manner dependent on TLR4. From these mice, CD133+/CD49f+ tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells (TICs) have been isolated. These TICs exhibit self-renewal and tumorigenic activities driven by TLR4-dependent upregulation of the stem cell factor NANOG. A defective TGF-β tumor suppressor pathway is identified in the TICs and mediated by NANOG target genes Igf2bp3 and Yap1. This TGF-β pathway antagonism is responsible in part for the TICs' tumorigenic activity and chemoresistance. Conversely, mice with an attenuated TGF-β pathway due to haploinsufficiency of β2-Spectrin, spontaneously develop liver tumors and alcohol feeding increases tumor incidence in a TLR4-dependent manner. This reciprocal antagonism between TLR4 and TGF-β pathways may serve as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
Hepatology International 09/2013; 8(S2):408-412. DOI:10.1007/s12072-013-9489-1 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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