Hepatocellular Cancer - the impact of obesity, type 2 diabetes and a multidisciplinary team.
ABSTRACT Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) commonly complicates chronic liver disease and increases in incidence have been reported despite falling prevalences of viral hepatitis.
Following the introduction of centralised specialist teams to manage patients with cancer in England, we characterised the demographics of patients with HCC referred to the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust between 2000 and 2010. Regional HCC mortality data was from Public Health England.
HCC related mortality in the region rose 1.8 fold in 10 years, from 2.0 to 3.7 per 100,000. 632 cases were reviewed centrally, with 2-3 fold increases in referrals of patients with associated hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease or no chronic liver disease and a >10 fold increase in HCC associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). By 2010 NAFLD accounted for 41/118 (34.8%) cases. Irrespective of associated etiologies, metabolic risk factors were present in 78/118 (66.1%) cases in 2010, associated with regional increases in obesity and diabetes. Median overall survival was just 10.7 months. Although patients with NAFLD associated HCC were older (71.3yrs versus 67.1yrs; p<0.001) and their cancers less often detected by surveillance, their survival was similar to other etiologies. This was attributed to significantly higher incidental presentation (38.2%) and lower prevalence of cirrhosis (77.2%).
HCC related mortality is increasing, with typical patients being elderly with metabolic risk factors. The prognosis for most is poor, but older patients with co-morbidities can do well managed within a specialist multidisciplinary team if their cancer is detected pre-symptomatically.
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ABSTRACT: Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have associated chronic liver disease, the severity of which is currently assessed by the Child-Pugh (C-P) grade. In this international collaboration, we identify objective measures of liver function/dysfunction that independently influence survival in patients with HCC and then combine these into a model that could be compared with the conventional C-P grade. We developed a simple model to assess liver function, based on 1,313 patients with HCC of all stages from Japan, that involved only serum bilirubin and albumin levels. We then tested the model using similar cohorts from other geographical regions (n = 5,097) and other clinical situations (patients undergoing resection [n = 525] or sorafenib treatment for advanced HCC [n = 1,132]). The specificity of the model for liver (dys)function was tested in patients with chronic liver disease but without HCC (n = 501). The model, the Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) grade, performed at least as well as the C-P grade in all geographic regions. The majority of patients with HCC had C-P grade A disease at presentation, and within this C-P grade, ALBI revealed two classes with clearly different prognoses. Its utility in patients with chronic liver disease alone supported the contention that the ALBI grade was indeed an index of liver (dys)function. The ALBI grade offers a simple, evidence-based, objective, and discriminatory method of assessing liver function in HCC that has been extensively tested in an international setting. This new model eliminates the need for subjective variables such as ascites and encephalopathy, a requirement in the conventional C-P grade. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2014; 33(6). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.9151 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Chinese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We reviewed the data of 52 PBC-associated HCC patients treated at Beijing 302 Hospital from January 2002 to December 2013 and analyzed its incidence and characteristics between the two genders. The risk factors for PBC-associated HCC were analyzed via a case-control study comprising 20 PBC patients with HCC and 77 matched controls without HCC. The matched factors included gender, age, follow-up period and Child-Pugh scores. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds ratios of potential risk factors for HCC development. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of HCC in Chinese PBC patients was 4.13% (52/1255) and was significantly higher in the males (9.52%) than in the females (3.31%). Among the 52 PBC patients with HCC, 55.76% (29/52) were diagnosed with HCC and PBC simultaneously, and 5.76% (3/52) were diagnosed with HCC before PBC. The males with PBC-associated HCC were more likely than the females to have undergone blood transfusion (18.75% vs 8.33%, P = 0.043), consumed alcohol (31.25% vs 8.33%, P = 0.010), smoked (31.25% vs 8.33%, P = 0.010), had a family history of malignancy (25% vs 5.56%, P = 0.012), and had serious liver inflammation, as indicated by the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (P < 0.05). Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.116, 95%CI: 1.002-1.244, P = 0.045] and history of alcohol intake (AOR = 10.294, 95%CI: 1.108-95.680, P = 0.040) were significantly associated with increased odds of HCC development in PBC patients. HCC is not rare in Chinese PBC patients. Risk factors for PBC-associated HCC include BMI ≥ 25 and a history of alcohol intake. In addition to regular monitoring, PBC patients may benefit from abstinence from alcohol and body weight control.03/2015; 21(12):3554-63. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i12.3554
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing worldwide and a poorly defined subset of patients develops end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Differences in the biological behaviour, tumour characteristics, associated risk factors, treatment outcomes and overall survival of patients with NASH-HCC remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze these differences in a large clinical cohort to guide treatment decisions. 1119 patients with HCC treated in an 11 year period at the University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with NASH-HCC (n = 45) were older (67.6 vs. 65 years), had an increased frequency of the metabolic syndrome and complications with a higher incidence of obesity (31.1% vs. 14.7%), type II diabetes mellitus (66.7% vs. 37.85%), a higher rate of myocardial infarction (13.3% vs. 4.8%) and apoplectic stroke (8.9% vs. 2.1%) (all p < 0.05). Interestingly, liver function was preserved to a higher extent and MELD scores were significantly lower in NASH-HCC. Nonetheless, resection or orthotopic liver transplantation was performed only in 17.8% and 4.4% of NASH-HCC respectively. Overall survival was lower compared to HCC of other aetiologies. Independent of the underlying aetiology BMI exhibited a positive correlation with overall survival. Despite retained liver function, patients with NASH-associated HCC showed a decreased overall survival. With regards to the expected increasing prevalence of NASH, it will be necessary to improve screening and surveillance strategies to identify HCC in NASH early and improve survival.BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1):210. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1197-x · 3.32 Impact Factor