Management of acute asthma in the pediatric patient: an evidence-based review
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, with asthma exacerbations and wheezing resulting in more than 2 million emergency department visits per year. Symptoms can vary from mild shortness of breath to fatal status asthmaticus. Given the high prevalence of asthma and its potential to progress from mild to moderate to life-threatening, it is vital for emergency clinicians to have a thorough understanding of acute asthma management. Current evidence clearly supports the use of inhaled bronchodilators and systemic steroids as first-line agents. However, in those who fail to respond to nitial therapies, a variety of adjunct therapies and interventions are available with varying degrees of evidence to support their use. This review focuses specifically on evaluation and treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department and reviews the current evidence for various modes of treatment.
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ABSTRACT: An aerosol formulation containing 7.5 mg of R-salbutamol sulfate was developed. The aerosol was nebulized with an air-jet nebulizer, and further assessed according to the new European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. A breath simulator was used for studies of delivery rate and total amount of the active ingredient at volume of 3 mL. A next generation impactor (NGI) with a cooler was used for analysis of the particle size and in vitro lung deposition rate of the active ingredient at 5 °C. The anti-asthmatic efficacy of the aerosol formulation was assessed in guinea pigs with asthma evoked by intravenous injection of histamine compared with racemic salbutamol. Our results show that this aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate met all the requirements of the new EMA guidelines for nebulizer. The efficacy of a half-dose of R-salbutamol equaled that of a normal dose of racemic salbutamol.
02/2014; 4(1). DOI:10.1016/j.apsb.2013.12.010
Available from: Yu-Chiang Hung
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ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the most commonly used alternative therapy in children with asthma, especially in the Chinese community. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the government-sponsored Outpatient’s Healthcare Quality Improvement (OHQI) project with integrated TCM treatment on childhood asthma.
This study used the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, which is a part of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Children with diagnosed asthma and aged under 15 years from 2006–2010 were enrolled. They were collated into 3 groups: (1) subjects treated with non-TCM; (2) subjects treated with single TCM; and (3) subjects treated with integrative OHQI TCM. The medical visits and the cost of treatment paid by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) to the outpatient, emergency room, and inpatient departments were evaluated for the study subjects within 1 year of the first asthma diagnosis during the study period.
Fifteen multi-hospitals, including 7 medical centers, and 35 TCM physicians participated in OHQI during the study period. A total of 12850 children from the NHIRD database were enrolled in this study, and divided as follows: 12435 children in non-TCM group, 406 children in single TCM group, and 9 children in integrative OHQI TCM group. Although the total medical cost paid by the BNHI per patient in the integrative OHQI TCM group was greater than that in the non-OHQI groups, the patients in the integrative OHQI TCM group exhibited greater therapeutic effects, and did not require ER visits or hospitalization. In addition, ER visits and hospitalization among patients who received a combination of conventional therapy with integrated TCM were lower than those among patients who underwent conventional therapy alone or single TCM treatment.
Asthmatic children at partly controlled level under conventional therapy may benefit from adjuvant treatment with integrated TCM.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2014; 14(1):389. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-389 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our institution's pediatric emergency department, adherence to evidence-based asthma guidelines was noted to be suboptimal for patients with asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that an evidence-based asthma protocol would improve time to treatment and adherence to National Institutes of Health guidelines for patients presenting to the emergency department with status asthmaticus.
Subjects at our institution were retrospectively identified through an electronic medical record search following institutional review board approval. The asthma protocol was initiated in February 2012. All pediatric subjects who received continuous albuterol in the emergency department before (February 26, 2009, to February 22, 2012, n = 193) and after (February 23, 2012, to December 31, 2012, n = 68) protocol initiation were analyzed. The post-protocol data were collected as part of routine quality assurance monitoring with a target of 60 post-protocol subjects. Subjects were identified at the end of each month, which resulted in a total of 68 subjects being included. Primary outcomes measured included time to initial treatment with inhaled bronchodilator therapy, time to treatment with systemic corticosteroids, and total number of ipratropium bromide treatments delivered.
Two-hundred sixty-one subjects (7.1 ± 4.6 y of age, 66% male) were included. Demographics were similar in the pre- and post-protocol groups. Compared with the pre-protocol group, more subjects in the post-protocol group received bronchodilators within 30 min (60% vs 77%, P = .02), at least one dose of ipratropium bromide (55% vs 87%, P < .001), 3 doses of ipratropium bromide (14% vs 54%, P < .001), and corticosteroids within 60 min (62% vs 77%, P = .04). There were no statistically significant differences between the pre- and post-protocol cohorts in the mean time to first bronchodilator treatment (32 ± 41 vs 26 ± 52 min, P = .34), mean time to corticosteroid administration (74 ± 68 vs 54 ± 63 min, P = .06), or mean emergency department length of stay (342 ± 143 vs 364 ± 183 min, P = .31).
An asthma protocol resulted in improved adherence to National Institutes of Health guidelines in children with status asthmaticus and improved efficiency in the administration of rescue bronchodilator and systemic corticosteroid therapy.
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