The link between plasma resistin and obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders in children remains debatable. This study assessed the relationships of plasma resistin with cardiovascular risk factors, pro-inflammatory markers and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in obese (Ob) adolescents and obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (Ob-MS) compared to healthy controls (CO).
114 obese adolescents (60 Ob, age 13.6 ± 0.9 years, BMI 28.0 ± 2.2 kg/m(2), and 54 Ob-MS, age 13.8 ± 1.0 years, BMI 32.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) and 37 CO (age 13.7 ± 0.8 years, BMI 22.8 ± 0.8 kg/m(2)) were studied. Anthropometrics, cardiac variables as well as fasting plasma concentrations of lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipocytokines (resistin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP)) were measured. HOMA-IR was calculated, and the presence of MS was assessed.
Plasma resistin was significantly higher in Ob-MS than in both Ob and CO and was correlated with anthropometric, cardiovascular, pro-inflammatory markers and several components of MS as was HOMA-IR in Ob and Ob-MS. With increasing the number of MS components, plasma resistin, pro-inflammatory markers, and HOMA-IR were also increased. Multiple regression models highlighted significant correlation between resistin and both HOMA-IR (r = 0.40, p < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) in Ob-MS.
These results support the hypothesis that there is an association between circulating resistin and childhood obesity-related inflammatory and cardiometabolic events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initial discovery of resistin and resistin-like molecules (RELMs) in rodents suggested a role for these adipocytokines in molecular linkage of obesity, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Since then, it became apparent that the story of resistin and RELMs was very much of mice and men. The putative role of this adipokine family evolved from that of a conveyor of insulin resistance in rodents to instigator of inflammatory processes in humans. Structural dissimilarity, variance in distribution profiles and a lack of corroborating evidence for functional similarities separate the biological functions of resistin in humans from that of rodents. Although present in gross visceral fat deposits in humans, resistin is a component of inflammation, being released from infiltrating white blood cells of the sub-clinical chronic low grade inflammatory response accompanying obesity, rather than from the adipocyte itself. This led researchers to further explore the functions of the resistin family of proteins in inflammatory-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, as well as in cancers such as endometrial and gastric cancers. Although elevated levels of resistin have been found in these conditions, whether it is causative or as a result of these conditions still remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future.
Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 12.3 years (1.1 years) participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase), lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals.
The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample) and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%), intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%), fasting insulin (43.5%), C-reactive protein (42.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0%), total cholesterol (33.5%), and systolic blood pressure (30.0%). Of all participants, 96.3% (77/80) had at least one impaired cardiometabolic risk factor as well as obesity. Prevalence of MetS was 21.3% according to the International Diabetes Federation definition and 30% using the Third Adult Treatment Panel definition.
The present study suggests that obese Kuwaiti adolescents have multiple cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities. Future studies are needed to test the benefits of intervention in this high-risk group. They also suggest that prevention of obesity in children and adults should be a major public health goal in Kuwait.
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 10/2014; 7:505-11. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S66156
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