Translesion Synthesis of 8,5'-Cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides by DNA Polymerases η, ι, and ζ
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can give rise to a battery of DNA damage products including the 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cdA) and 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (cdG) tandem lesions. The 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides are quite stable lesions and are valid and reliable markers of oxidative DNA damage. However, it remains unclear how these lesions compromise DNA replication in mammalian cells. Previous in vitro biochemical assays have suggested a role for human Pol η in the insertion step of translesion synthesis (TLS) across the (5'S) diastereomers of cdA and cdG. Using in vitro steady-state kinetic assay, herein we showed that human Pol ι and yeast Pol ζ could function efficiently in the insertion and extension steps, respectively, of TLS across S-cdA and S-cdG; human Pol κ and Pol η could also extend past these lesions, albeit much less efficiently. Results from a quantitative TLS assay showed that, in human cells, S-cdA and S-cdG inhibited strongly DNA replication and induced substantial frequencies of mutations at the lesion sites. Additionally, Pol η, Pol ι, and Pol ζ, but not Pol κ, had important roles in promoting replication through S-cdA and S-cdG in human cells. Based on these results, we propose a model for TLS across S-cdA and S-cdG in human cells, where Pol η and/or Pol ι carries out nucleotide insertion opposite the lesion, whereas Pol ζ executes the extension step.
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ABSTRACT: 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxypurines (cdPus) are common forms of oxidized DNA lesions resulting from endogenous and environmental oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. The lesions can only be repaired by nucleotide excision repair with a low efficiency. This results in their accumulation in the genome that leads to stalling of the replication DNA polymerases and poor lesion bypass by translesion DNA polymerases. Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) consist of tandem repeats of Gs and As and therefore are hotspots of cdPus. In this study, we provided the first evidence that both (5'R)- and (5'S)-5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cdA) in a CAG repeat tract caused CTG repeat deletion exclusively during DNA lagging strand maturation and base excision repair. We found that a cdA induced the formation of a CAG loop in the template strand, which was skipped over by DNA polymerase β (pol β) lesion bypass synthesis. This subsequently resulted in the formation of a long flap that was efficiently cleaved by flap endonuclease 1, thereby leading to repeat deletion. Our study indicates that accumulation of cdPus in the human genome can lead to TNR instability via a unique lesion bypass by pol β. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2014; 42(22). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1239 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine (S-cdG) lesion is produced from reactions of DNA with hydroxyl radicals generated from ionizing radiation or endogenous oxidative metabolisms. An elevated level of S-cdG has been detected in Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, breast cancer patients, and in aged mice. S-dG blocks DNA replication and transcription in vitro and in human cells, and produces mutant replication and transcription products in vitro and in vivo. Major cellular protection against S-dG includes nucleotide excision repair and translesion DNA synthesis. We used kinetic and crystallographic approaches to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of S-cdG-induced DNA replication stalling using model B-family Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase B1 (Dpo1) and Y-family Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Dpo1 and Dpo4 inefficiently bypassed S-cdG with dCTP preferably incorporated and dTTP (for Dpo4) or dATP (for Dpo1) misincorporated. Pre-steady-state kinetics and crystallographic data mechanistically explained the low-efficiency bypass. For Dpo1, S-cdG attenuated Kd,dNTP,app and kpol. For Dpo4, the S-cdG-adducted duplex caused 6-fold decrease in Dpo4:DNA binding affinity, and significantly reduced the concentration of the productive Dpo4:DNA:dCTP complex. Consistent with the inefficient bypass, crystal structures of Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dCTP (error-free) and Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dTTP (error-prone) were catalytically incompetent. In Dpo4:DNA(S-cdG):dTTP structure, S-cdG induced a loop structure and caused an unusual 5'-template base clustering at the active site, providing the first structural evidence for the previously suggested template loop structure that can be induced by a cyclopurine lesion. Together, our results provided mechanistic insights for the S-cdG-induced DNA replication stalling.Biochemistry 01/2015; 54(3). DOI:10.1021/bi5014936 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 8,5' cyclopurine deoxynucleosides (cPu) are locally distorting DNA base lesions corrected by nucleotide excision repair (NER) and proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration prevalent in genetically defined Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients. In the current study, purified recombinant helicases from different classifications based on sequence homology were examined for their ability to unwind partial duplex DNA substrates harboring a single site-specific cPu adduct. Superfamily (SF) 2 RecQ helicases (RECQ1, BLM, WRN, RecQ) were inhibited by cPu in the helicase translocating strand, whereas helicases from SF1 (UvrD) and SF4 (DnaB) tolerated cPu in either strand. SF2 Fe-S helicases (FANCJ, DDX11 (ChlR1), DinG, XPD) displayed marked differences in their ability to unwind the cPu DNA substrates. Archaeal Thermoplasma acidophilum XPD (taXPD), homologue to the human XPD helicase involved in NER DNA damage verification, was impeded by cPu in the non-translocating strand, while FANCJ was uniquely inhibited by the cPu in the translocating strand. Sequestration experiments demonstrated that FANCJ became trapped by the translocating strand cPu whereas RECQ1 was not, suggesting the two SF2 helicases interact with the cPu lesion by distinct mechanisms despite strand-specific inhibition for both. Using a protein trap to simulate single-turnover conditions, the rate of FANCJ or RECQ1 helicase activity was reduced 10-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, by cPu in the translocating strand. In contrast, single-turnover rates of DNA unwinding by DDX11 and UvrD helicases were only modestly affected by the cPu lesion in the translocating strand. The marked difference in effect of the translocating strand cPu on rate of DNA unwinding between DDX11 and FANCJ helicase suggests the two Fe-S cluster helicases unwind damaged DNA by distinct mechanisms. The apparent complexity of helicase encounters with an unusual form of oxidative damage is likely to have important consequences in the cellular response to DNA damage and DNA repair.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113293. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113293 · 3.53 Impact Factor