Comparison of disease-specific quality of life tools in patients with chronic venous disease

Academic Section of Vascular Surgery, Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK.
Phlebology (Impact Factor: 1.77). 08/2013; 29(10). DOI: 10.1177/0268355513501302
Source: PubMed


This work was presented as a poster in the American Venous Forum 25th Annual Meeting; 28 February 2013; Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment for chronic venous disease. The Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire (AVVQ) and the ChronIc Venous Insufficiency quality of life Questionnaire (CIVIQ-14) are two validated disease-specific QoL questionnaires in current use. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the AVVQ and the CIVIQ-14 to enable better comparison between studies and to compare these disease-specific QoL tools with generic QoL and clinician-driven tools.

Adults attending our institution for management of their varicose veins completed the AVVQ, CIVIQ-14 and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Clinical data, CEAP classification and the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) were collected. The relationship between the AVVQ and CIVIQ-14 scores was analysed using Spearman's correlation. The AVVQ and CIVIQ-14 scores were also analysed with a generic QoL tool (EQ-5D) and a clinician-driven tool, the VCSS.

One hundred patients, mean age 57.5 (44 males; 56 females), participated in the study. The median AVVQ score was 21.9 (range 0-74) and the median CIVIQ-14 score was 30 (range 0-89). A strong correlation was demonstrated between the AVVQ and CIVIQ-14 scores (r = 0.8; p < 0.0001). Strong correlation was maintained for patients with C1-3 disease (r = 0.7; p < 0.0001) and C4-6 disease (r = 0.8; p < 0.0001). The VCSS correlated strongly with the AVVQ and CIVIQ-14 scores (r = 0.7; p < 0.0001 and r = 0.7; p < 0.0001, respectively). Both the AVVQ and CIVIQ-14 scores correlated well with the EQ-5D score (r = -0.5; p < 0.0001 and r = -0.7; p < 0.0001, respectively).

This study demonstrates that there is good correlation between two widely used varicose vein specific QoL tools (AVVQ and CIVIQ-14) across the whole spectrum of disease severity. Strong correlation exists between these disease-specific QoL tools and generic and clinician-driven tools. Our findings confirm valid comparisons between studies using either disease-specific QoL tool.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective We conducted a systematic review of the literature about quality-of-life (QOL) scales in chronic venous disorders (CVDs) comprising leg ulcers to identify the respective advantages and deficits of existing tools. Methods A research protocol was built following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) criteria. The following databases were screened: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, CINHAL, and Cochrane. Psychometric and linguistic validation studies in English were included, as were clinical trials that have used QOL scales in CVDs. The data search was up to date as of October 31, 2013. Results Inclusion criteria were met in 103 of the 511 recorded references, in which 10 scales were identified: two for the full spectrum of CVDs, three for patients with CVDs without leg ulceration, four for leg ulcers, and one exclusively for patients with varicose veins. Among them, the ChronIc Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ), Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire (AVVQ), and VEnous INsufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life (VEINES-QOL) scales were the most highly used according to the literature, and CIVIQ and VEINES-QOL were the most extensively validated scales and had the longest iterative validation process. A total of 31 psychometric and linguistic validations of the 10 QOL scales and 66 clinical trials that have used these scales were identified. The validation studies were based on acceptability, content validity, construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness. The clinical trials were composed of 25 randomized controlled trials and 41 observational studies. Only the randomized controlled trials are considered in the present article. Conclusions This systematic review confirmed that CVDs have an important effect on QOL. The majority of the studies addressed the application rather than the validation of the 10 identified scales. Two scales, CIVIQ and VEINES-QOL, emerged as being thoroughly validated instruments, although factorial stability was not demonstrated for the VEINES-QOL. Our findings confirm a paucity of validation studies.
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