Safety and predictors of aneurysm retreatment for remnant intracranial aneurysm after initial endovascular embolization
ABSTRACT Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare but devastating form of stroke. Endovascular therapy has been criticized for its higher rate of recanalization and retreatment. The safety and predictors of retreatment are unknown. We report the clinical outcomes, imaging outcomes and predictors for aneurysm retreatment after initial endovascular embolization.
We identified patients who underwent endovascular retreatment from July 2005 through November 2011. Aneurysm and patient data were collected. Periprocedural complications were reported as intraoperative perforation (IOP) or thromboembolic event (TEE). Aneurysm and patient characteristics were compared between aneurysms requiring retreatment and those not requiring retreatment to evaluate aneurysm retreatment predictors.
A total of 111/871 (13%) aneurysms underwent retreatment. Two (0.2%) were retreated for recurrent acute SAH, 82 (74%) aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, 47 (42%) required stent and 5 (5%) required balloon assist during retreatment. There were a total of 5 (5%) IOP and 6 (5%) TEE from which 2 (2%) and 1 (1%) were symptomatic, respectively. Overall symptomatic events rate were 2.7%. Patients were followed up for an average of 15±14 months. Seven (0.8%) aneurysms required a second retreatment without any recurrent SAH. Multivariable analysis revealed an OR for aneurysms requiring retreatment of 2.965 for aneurysms presenting as aneurysmal SAH, 1.791 for aneurysms in the posterior circulation and 1.053 for aneurysms with large dome size.
Aneurysm retreatment is a safe option without a significant increase in morbidity or mortality. SAH, posterior circulation aneurysms and larger aneurysm dome size are predictors of aneurysms requiring retreatment.
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent hemorrhage in the case of incompletely treated aneurysms is well known. The authors present a series of patients in whom rebleeding occurred in spite of totally occluded aneurysms. During a period of 12 years, 1170 patients with intracranial aneurysms were treated using either clipping (n=727) or coiling (n=443). In 11 of them, intracranial rebleeding occurred, in seven of whom routine post-treatment angiography revealed total aneurysm occlusion before the appearance of rehemorrhage. Further analysis focused on these seven patients. Their recurrent aneurysm ruptures happened with a mean latency of 9.5 months (range 21 h-48 months) from initial treatment. All aneurysms belonged to the anterior circulation. Three patients underwent primary clipping, and four experienced coiling first. The intracranial hemorrhages appeared mainly as intracerebral hematomas. The angiographically documented recurrent aneurysm configurations were caused by clip slippage (n=2), coil compaction (n=3), or coil migration/dislocation (n=1). In one case with primary surgery, clip slippage was possible but not confirmed by intraoperative view, because the patient died before therapeutic intervention. Two patients did not undergo therapy because of their poor clinical condition and died. Four of the remaining patients underwent clipping of the recurrent lesions, and one had recoiling. Final outcome was excellent/good in only two patients. The mainly poor outcome after rebleeding was caused by the high incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage.Neurosurgical Review 11/2003; 26(4):269-74. DOI:10.1007/s10143-003-0285-6 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because the long-term security of endovascular treatments remains uncertain, a follow-up study of the patients treated in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial was performed to compare the frequency, timing, and consequences of aneurysm recurrence. Patient data were reclassified by actual treatment performed. Aneurysm and patient characteristics, including occlusion grades, time and type of retreatment, and clinical outcomes, were compared. The relationship between these variables and late retreatment as a surrogate for recurrence was analyzed by means of the Cox proportional hazards model. Retreatment was performed in 191 of 1096 (17.4%) patients after primary endovascular coiling (EVT) and in 39 of 1012 patients (3.8%) after neurosurgical clipping. After EVT, 97 (8.8%) patients were retreated early and 94 (9.0%) late, 7 (0.6%) after rebleeding and 87 (8.3%) without. The mean time to late retreatment was 20.7 months. After neurosurgical clipping, 30 (2.9%) patients were retreated early and 9 (0.85%) late, 3 (0.3%) after rebleeding and 6 (0.6%) without. The mean time to late retreatment was 5.7 months. The hazard ratio (HR) for retreatment after EVT was 6.9 (95% CI=3.4 to 14.1) after adjustment for age (P=0.001, HR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95 to 0.98), lumen size (P=0.006, HR=1.1, 95% CI=1.03 to 1.18), and incomplete occlusion (P<0.001, HR=7.6, 95% CI=3.3 to 17.5). Late retreatment was 6.9 times more likely after EVT. Younger age, larger lumen size, and incomplete occlusion were risk factors for late retreatment after EVT. After neurosurgical clipping, retreatments were earlier; whereas EVT retreatments continued to be performed throughout the follow-up period. Short-term follow-up imaging is therefore insufficient to detect recurrences after EVT.Stroke 05/2007; 38(5):1538-44. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.466987 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term angiographic outcome of surgically treated aneurysms, which is unknown. Specifically, the incidence of recurrent aneurysms, the fate of residual necks, and the de novo formation of aneurysms were evaluated. One hundred two patients (80 females and 22 males; mean age 49 years; range 12-78 years) harboring a total of 167 aneurysms underwent late follow-up angiography; 160 aneurysms were surgically treated. Late angiographic follow-up review was obtained at a mean of 4.4 +/- 1.6 years postsurgery (range 2.6-9.7 years). Late follow-up angiography revealed two recurrent aneurysms (1.5%) of 135 clipped aneurysms without residua. Of 12 aneurysms with known residua, there were eight "dog-ear" residua, of which two (25%) enlarged. One hemorrhage was noted, yielding a hemorrhage risk of 1.9% per year. A second subgroup with broad-based residua revealed dramatic regrowth in three of four cases. Eight de novo aneurysms were found in six patients, for an annual risk of 1.8% per year. A history of multiple aneurysms was associated with de novo aneurysm formation (p = 0.049, chi-square analysis). This study confirms the long-term efficacy of aneurysm clip ligation. In addition, the authors found there is a small but significant risk of de novo aneurysm formation, particularly in patients with multiple aneurysms. Most residual aneurysm rests appear to remain stable, although a subset may enlarge or rupture. These findings support the rationale for late angiographic follow-up review in patients with aneurysms.Journal of Neurosurgery 10/1999; 91(3):396-401. DOI:10.3171/jns.1999.91.3.0396 · 3.23 Impact Factor