Reference ranges for sonographic dimensions of the liver and spleen in preterm infants.

Department of Pediatrics, The Ministry of Health Tepecik Teaching and Research Hospital, Gaziler Street, Yenisehir, Izmir, Turkey.
Pediatric Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.65). 08/2013; DOI: 10.1007/s00247-013-2729-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Preterm infants usually have multiple comorbidities that affect spleen and liver. Ultrasonographic measurement of organ sizes is an important and reliable parameter in evaluation of spleen and liver pathology in preterm newborns.
The purpose of this study was to determine reference values of ultrasonographic measurements of the liver and spleen in preterm newborns.
We prospectively performed sonography on 498 preterm newborns in the first week of life. We measured spleen and liver dimensions and statistically analyzed relationships between the dimensions and gender, gestational age (based on mother's last menstrual period), height and weight. Reference ranges of dimensions were defined.
Longitudinal and anteroposterior dimensions of the liver and spleen were statistically significantly different between the boys and girls (P < 0.05) and showed high correlation with the gestational age, weight and height. Weight was the parameter best correlated with the dimensions.
Nomograms from these data are useful for sonographic evaluation of the liver and spleen in preterm newborns.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether hepatosplenomegaly was a reproducible finding in seven neonates who were being treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory failure. The authors measured splenic and hepatic dimensions with ultrasound (US) at the time ECMO was initiated and then every 24-48 hours until decannulation. Splenic volume and the index of hepatic size were calculated by using published formulas. Splenic volume increased in all seven patients from 8.3 cm3 +/- 1.7 to 16.4 cm3 +/- 4.4 (P < or = .001). Hepatic size did not change markedly. Hemolysis, leukopenia, and platelet activation occur during ECMO. Rapid splenic enlargement may be secondary to sequestration of red cells, platelets, and other hematologic elements that have been damaged in the ECMO circuit. Since the liver does not also increase in size, the splenic enlargement is unlikely to be the result of passive congestion.
    Radiology 03/1994; 190(2):411-2. · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of dimensions for the liver, spleen, and kidney in healthy neonates, infants, and children. This prospective study involved 307 pediatric subjects (169 girls and 138 boys) with normal physical or sonographic findings who were examined because of problems unrelated to the measured organs. The subjects were 5 days to 16 years old. All measured organs were sonographically normal. At least two dimensions were obtained for each liver, spleen, and kidney. Relationships of the dimensions of these organs with sex, age, body weight, height, and body surface area were investigated. Suggested limits of normal dimensions were defined. Dimensions of the measured organs were not statistically different in boys and girls. Longitudinal dimensions of all three organs showed the best correlation with age, body weight, height, and body surface area. Height showed the strongest correlation of all. This correlation was a polynomial correlation. Determination of pathologic changes in size of the liver, spleen, and kidney necessitates knowing the normal range of dimensions for these organs in healthy neonates, infants, and children. Presented data are applicable in daily routine sonography. Body height should be considered the best criteria to correlate with longitudinal dimensions of these organs.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 01/1999; 171(6):1693-8. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to ultrasonographically evaluate spleen dimensions in healthy prematurely born neonates and infants during the first 3 months of life. Ninety-six neonates and infants aged from 2 to 90 days, with gestational ages from 25 to 35 weeks, were prospectively examined between 2001 and 2003. None had either infectious or other serious diseases or congenital disorders. The relationships between the ultrasonographically measured spleen size parameters and postmenstrual age, sex, gestational age, and somatometric parameters (height, weight, and body surface area) were studied with linear regression models with backward selection. Spleen dimension growth curves and upper/lower limits defined by the upper/lower 95% confidence interval were presented in graphs by height, weight, and body surface area. In addition, spleen length was compared with recently published data on term peers. All spleen dimensions were positively correlated with postmenstrual age and somatometric parameters. Sex did not influence the variability of spleen dimensions. Spleen length had lower values and a smaller rate of growth in preterm than term neonates and infants. We have provided ultrasonographic spleen volumetric values in preterm neonates and infants during the first 3 months of life, giving reference standards applicable for clinical practice or research purposes.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 04/2007; 26(3):329-35. · 1.53 Impact Factor