Trajectory of Adolescent Cannabis Use on Addiction Vulnerability.

James J. Peters Veterans Administration, Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address: .
Neuropharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.82). 08/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.07.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael Michaelides, Jul 06, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Marihuana is the most widely consumed illicit drug, even among adolescents and pregnant women. Given the critical developmental processes that occur in the central nervous system in these populations, their marihuana consumption may have permanent consequences on several brain functions in later adult life. Here, we review what is currently known about the long-term consequences of prenatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure. The most consistent findings point to long-term impairments in cognitive function that are associated with structural alterations and disturbed synaptic plasticity. In addition, several neurochemical modifications are also evident after prenatal or adolescent cannabinoid exposure, especially in the endocannabinoid, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and opioidergic systems. Important sexual dimorphisms are also evident in terms of the long-lasting effects of cannabinoid consumption during pregnancy and adolescence, and cannabinoids possibly have a protective effect in adolescents who have suffered traumatic life challenges, such as maternal separation or intense stress. Finally, we suggest some future research directions that may encourage further advances in this exciting field. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 05/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.020 · 10.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to changes in cannabis policies, concerns about cannabis use (CU) in adolescents have increased. The population of nonwhite groups is growing quickly in the United States. We examined perceived CU norms and their association with CU and CU disorder (CUD) for White, Black, Hispanic, Native-American, Asian-American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NH/PI), and mixed-race adolescents. Data were from adolescents (12-17 years) in the 2004-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 163,837). Substance use and CUD were assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. Blacks, Hispanics, Native-Americans, and mixed-race adolescents had greater odds of past-year CU and CUD than Whites. Among past-year cannabis users (CUs), Hispanics and Native-Americans had greater odds of having a CUD than Whites. Asian-Americans had the highest prevalence of perceived parental or close friends' CU disapproval. Native-Americans and mixed-race adolescents had lower odds than Whites of perceiving CU disapproval from parents or close friends. In adjusted analyses, adolescent's disapproval of CU, as well as perceived disapproval by parents or close friends, were associated with a decreased odds of CU in each racial/ethnic group, except for NHs/PIs. Adolescent's disapproval of CU was associated with a decreased odds of CUD among CUs for Whites (personal, parental, and close friends' disapproval), Hispanics (personal, parental, and close friends' disapproval), and mixed-race adolescents (personal, close friends' disapproval). Racial/ethnic differences in adolescent CU prevalence were somewhat consistent with adolescents' reports of CU norm patterns. Longitudinal research on CU health effects should oversample nonwhite adolescents to assure an adequate sample for analysis and reporting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 03/2015; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.02.022 · 4.09 Impact Factor