Article

Impact of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels on performance and emission of CI engine

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.51). 11/2013; 27:664-682. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.07.059

ABSTRACT Present energy situation of the world is unsustainable due to unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth as well as environmental, geopolitical and economical concerns. Ever increasing drift of energy consumption due to growth of population, transportation and luxurious lifestyle has motivated researchers to carry out research on biofuels as a sustainable alternative fuel for diesel engine. Renewability, cost effectiveness and reduction of pollutants in exhaust gas emission are promoting biofuels as a suitable substitute of diesel fuel in near future. This paper reviews the suitability of feedstock and comparative performance and emission of palm, mustard, waste cooking oil (WCO) and Calophyllum inophyllum biofuels with respect to diesel fuel from various recent publications. Probable analysis of performance and emission of biofuel is also included in further discussion. Palm oil has versatile qualities in terms of productivity, oil yield and land utilization. But tremendous demand of edible oil is motivating the use of non-edible vegetable oils as biofuel feedstock. Mustard oil is a promising new biofuel especially regarding NOx reduction. WCO is one of the most economic sources of biofuel which efficiently helps in liquid waste management and prevents recycling of used oil, injurious to human health. C. inophyllum is completely non-edible and trans-esterified oil shows similar engine performance and emission characteristics like other biofuels. Limited data were published regarding mustard and C. inophyllum as their use as biofuel is still in primary state compared to palm or WCO. Therefore, in depth research needs to be carried out on these two oils to use them effectively as alternative fuels.

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Available from: M. J. Abedin, Sep 01, 2015
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    • "Industrial economy of a country is very much dependent on non-renewable fossil resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas with applications in electric generators, power plants, heavy trucks, locomotives and mining equipment. This ever increasing drift of energy consumption is not sustainable due to unequal geographical distribution of fossil fuels as well as environmental, geopolitical and economic concern [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mustard biodiesel was produced from waste mustard oil and physicochemical properties were investigated. MB showed superior calorific value (40.404 MJ/kg), oxidation stability (15.92 h), cloud point (5 °C) and pour point (-18 °C) than any other conventional biodiesels. During engine performance test MB10 and MB20 showed 8-13% higher BSFC and 5-6% lower BTE compared to B0. By contrast, MB blends produced 7-8% less BP and 6-8% less engine torque compared to B0. Engine emission and noise test showed 9-12% higher NO, 24-42% lower HC, 19-40% lower CO and 2-7% lower noise emission for MB blends compared to B0. Besides, comparable engine performance and emission characteristics were found for MB10 and MB20 compared to PB10 and PB20 respectively.
    Procedia Engineering 12/2014; 10. DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.868
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    • "This everincreasing energy consumption is not sustainable due to the unequal geographical distribution of fossil fuels as well as environmental , geopolitical and economic concerns. Most importantly, fossil resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas are nonrenewable , and the price of petroleum is escalating day by day (Sanjid et al., 2013). Additionally, the use of fossil fuels incurs a high level of greenhouse gas emissions, which pollute the environment (Hussan et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns have stimulated research into biofuels as potential renewable and sustainable replacements for fossil diesel. The present research aimed to investigate the feasibility of using mustard biodiesel blends for energy generation in order to reduce air and noise pollution. Mustard biodiesel (MB) was produced from waste mustard oil and the physicochemical properties were investigated. MB showed a superior calorific value (40.40 MJ/kg), oxidation stability (16 h), cloud point (5 °C) and pour point (−18 °C) than any other conventional biodiesel. During engine performance tests, 10% and 20% MB blends showed 8–13% higher brake specific fuel consumption and 7–8% less brake power compared to diesel fuel. Engine emissions and noise tests showed 9–12% higher NO, 24–42% lower HC, 19–40% lower CO and 2–7% lower noise emission for MB blends compared to diesel fuel. Additionally, comparable engine performance and emission characteristics were found for 10% and 20% MB blends compared to same percentages of palm biodiesels, respectively. In conclusion, 10% and 20% MB blends can be used in diesel engines without modifications.
    Journal of Cleaner Production 09/2014; 79:74–81. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.019 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Very limited information is available about the research and production of biodiesel from it [22] [23]. As it possess high unsaturation (71%) in its fatty acid chain it has very low oxidation stability and needs antioxidant treatment [24]. Therefore, the effects of this on engine performance and emission needs proper investigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Biodiesel having higher unsaturation possesses lower oxidation stability, which needs treatment of oxidation inhibitors or antioxidants. It is expected that antioxidants may affect the clean burning characteristic of biodiesel. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn oil is one of the promising non-edible based feedstock which consists of mostly unsaturated fatty acids. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the antioxidant addition effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel (CIBD) was produced by one step esterification using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as catalyst and one step transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst. Two monophenolic, 2(3)-tert-Butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and one diphenolic, 2-tert-butylbenzene-1,4-diol (TBHQ) were added at 2000 ppm concentration to 20% CIBD (CIB20). The addition of antioxidants increased oxidation stability without causing any significant negative effect of physicochemical properties. TBHQ showed the greatest capability in increasing stability of CIB20. The tests were carried out using a 55 kW 2.5 L four-cylinder diesel engine at constant load varying speed condition. The performance results indicate that CIB20 showed 1.36% lower mean brake power (BP) and 4.90% higher mean brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to diesel. The addition of antioxidants increased BP and reduced BSFC slightly. Emission results show that CIB20 increased NOx but decreased CO and HC emission. Antioxidants reduced 1.6–3.6% NOx emission, but increased both CO and HC emission compared to CIB20. However, the level was below the diesel emission level. Thus CIB20 blends with antioxidants can be used in diesel engines without any modification.
    Energy Conversion and Management 07/2014; 83:232–240. DOI:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.069 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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